• 1
    Abrams P, Cardozo L, Fall M, et al. The standardisation of terminology of lower urinary tract function: report from the Standardisation Sub-committee of the International Continence Society. N eurourol Urodyn 2002: 21: 16778.
  • 2
    Milsom I, Abrams P, Cardozo L, et al. How widespread are the symptoms of overactive bladder and how are they managed? A population-based prevalence study. BJU Int 2001; 87: 7606.
  • 3
    Abrams P, Kelleher CJ, Kerr LA, et al. Overactive bladder significantly affects quality of life. Am J Manag Care 2000; 6: 58090.
  • 4
    Keller SL. Urinary incontinence: occurrence, knowledge and attitudes among women aged 55 and older in a rural Midwestern setting. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 1999; 26: 308.
  • 5
    Wagner TH, Hu TW, Bentkover J, et al. Health-related consequences of overactive bladder. Am J Manag Care 2002; 8: 598607.
  • 6
    Andersson K-E. The overactive bladder: pharmacologic basis of drug treatment. Urology 1997; 50 (6A Suppl): 7484.
  • 7
    Department of Health. Good practice in continence services. London: DH, 2002.
  • 8
    Getliffe K, Dolman M. Normal and abnormal bladder function. In: GetliffeK, DolmanM, eds. Promoting continence: a clinical and research resource, 2nd edn. London: Baillière Tindall, 2007.
  • 9
    Parsons M, Cardozo L. Female urinary incontinence in practice. London: The Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd, 2004.
  • 10
    Rigby D. The pharmacological options available in overactive bladder. Continence UK 2008; 2: 6971.
  • 11
    National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Urinary i ncontinence: the management of urinary incontinence in women. Clinical guideline 40. Implementation advice. London: NICE, 2006. (Available at; accessed 14 January 2009)
  • 12
    Steggall MJ. Urine samples and urinalysis. Nurs Stand 2007; 22: 146; 42–5.
  • 13
    Abrams P. Urodynamics. 3rd edn. London: Springer, 2003.
  • 14
    Larsson G, Victor A. Micturition patterns in a healthy female population, studied with a frequency-volume chart. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl 1988; 114: 537.
  • 15
    Srikrishna S, Robinson D, Cardozo L, et al. Management of overactive bladder syndrome. Postgrad Med J 2007; 83: 4816.
  • 16
    Hashim H, Abrams P. How should patients with an overactive bladder manipulate their fluid intake? BJU Int 2008; 102: 626.
  • 17
    Bryant CM, Dowell CJ, Fairbrother G. Caffeine reduction education to improve urinary symptoms. Br J Nurs 2002; 11: 560.
  • 18
    Dallosso HM, McGrother CW, Matthews RJ, et al. The association of diet and other lifestyle factors with overactive bladder and stress incontinence: a longitudinal study in women. Br J Urol Int 2003; 92: 6977.
  • 19
    Cummings JM, Rodning CB. Urinary stress incontinence among obese women: review of pathophysiology therapy. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2000; 11: 414.
  • 20
    Subak E, Whitcomb H, Shen J, et al. Weight loss: a novel and effective treatment for urinary incontinence. J Urol 174: 1905.
  • 21
    Spence-Jones C, Kamm MA, Henry MM, et al. Bowel dysfunction: a pathogenic factor in uterovaginal prolapse and urinary stress incontinence. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1994; 101: 147.
  • 22
    Hisayama T, Shinkai M, Takayanagi I, et al. Mechanism of action of nicotine in isolated urinary bladder of guinea pig. Br J Pharmacol 1988; 95: 46572.
  • 23
    Roe B, Ostaszkiewicz J, Milne J, et al. Systematic reviews of bladder training and voiding programmes in adults: a synopsis of findings from data analysis and outcomes using metastudy techniques. J Adv Nurs 2007; 57: 1531.
  • 24
    Subak LL, Quesenberry CP (Jr), Posner SF, et al. The effect of behavioural therapy on urinary incontinence: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2002; 100: 728.
  • 25
    Mahony DT, Laferte RO, Blais DJ. Integral storage and voiding reflexes. Neurophysiological concept of voiding and micturition. Neurology 1977; 1: 95106.
  • 26
    Vosloo R. Conservative management of female urinary incontinence. Continence UK 2008; 2: 1623.
  • 27
    Roesner M, Wagg A. Greater evidence of action of urinary incontinence is needed. Guidelines in Practice 2008; 11: 2732.
  • 28
    British National Formulary, March 2008, vol 55. London: BMJ Group.
  • 29
    Basra R, Wagg A, Chapple C, et al. 2008, A review of adherence to drug therapy in patients with overactive bladder. BJU Int 2008; 102: 7749.
  • 30
    Mattisson A, Abrams P, Van Kerrebroek P, et al. Efficacy of desmopressin in the treament of nocturia: a double blind placebo controlled study in men. Br J Urol Int 2002; 89: 85562.
  • 31
    Shah J, Leach G. Urinary continence, 2nd edn. Oxford: Health Press, 2001.
  • 32
    Preyer O, Gabrial B, Mailath-Pokorny M, et al. Peripheral tibial neurostimulation versus Tolterodine in the treatment of women with urge urinary incontinence and urge symptoms. Abstract presentation, 2007, IUGA, Mexico.
  • 33
    Abrams P, Andersson KE, Brubaker L, et al. 2004, 3rd International Consultation on Incontinence: evaluation and treatment of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse and faecal incontinence. In: AbramsP, CardozoL, KouryS (eds). Incontinence, vol 2. Plymouth: Health Publishers Ltd, 2005.