• 1
    Dupuis O, Ruimark S, Corinne D, Simone T, Andre D, Rene-Charles R. Fetal head position during the second stage of labor: comparison of digital vaginal examination and transabdominal ultrasonographic examination. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2005; 123: 193197.
  • 2
    Dupuis O, Silveira R, Zentner A, Dittmar A, Gaucherand P, Cucherat M, Redarce T, Rudigoz RC. Birth simulator: reliability of transvaginal assessment of fetal head station as defined by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists classification. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005; 192: 868874.
  • 3
    Akmal S, Kametas N, Tsoi E, Hargreaves C, Nicolaides KH. Comparison of transvaginal digital examination with intrapartum sonography to determine fetal head position before instrumental delivery. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2003; 21: 437440.
  • 4
    Akmal S, Tsoi E, Nicolaides KH. Intrapartum sonography to determine fetal occipital position: interobserver agreement. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2004; 24: 421424.
  • 5
    Dietz HP, Lanzarone V. Measuring engagement of the fetal head: validity and reproducibility of a new ultrasound technique. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005; 25: 165168.
  • 6
    Barbera AF, Imani F, Becker T, Lezotte DC, Hobbins JC. Anatomic relationship between the pubic symphysis and ischial spines and its clinical significance in the assessment of fetal head engagement and station during labor. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2009; 33: 320325.
  • 7
    Barbera AF, Pombar X, Perugino G, Lezotte DC, Hobbins JC. A new method to assess fetal head descent in labor with transperineal ultrasound. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2009; 33: 313319.
  • 8
    Ghi T, Farina A, Pedrazzi A, Rizzo N, Pelusi G, Pilu G. Diagnosis of station and rotation of the fetal head in the second stage of labor with intrapartum translabial ultrasound. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2009; 33: 331336.
  • 9
    Henrich W, Dudenhausen J, Fuchs I, Kamena A, Tutschek B. Intrapartum translabial ultrasound (ITU): sonographic landmarks and correlation with successful vacuum extraction. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2006; 28: 753760.
  • 10
    Eggebo TM, Gjessing LK, Heien C, Smedvig E, Okland I, Romundstad P, Salvesen KA. Prediction of labor and delivery by transperineal ultrasound in pregnancies with prelabor rupture of membranes at term. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2006; 27: 387391.
  • 11
    Molina FS, Terra R, Carrillo MP, Puertas A, Nicolaides KH. What is the most reliable ultrasound parameter for assessment of fetal head descent? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2010; 36: 493499.
  • 12
    Torkildsen EA, Salvesen KA, Eggebo TM. Agreement between 2D and 3D transperineal ultrasound methods in assessing fetal head descent in the first stage of labor. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012; 39: 310315.
  • 13
    Tutschek B, Braun T, Chantraine F, Henrich W. A study of progress of labour using intrapartum translabial ultrasound, assessing head station, direction, and angle of descent. BJOG 2011; 118: 6269.
  • 14
    Kalache KD, Duckelmann AM, Michaelis SA, Lange J, Cichon G, Dudenhausen JW. Transperineal ultrasound imaging in prolonged second stage of labor with occipitoanterior presenting fetuses: how well does the ‘angle of progression’ predict the mode of delivery? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2009; 33: 326330.
  • 15
    Ghi T, Contro E, Farina A, Nobile M, Pilu G. Three-dimensional ultrasound in monitoring progression of labor: a reproducibility study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2010; 36: 500506.
  • 16
    American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Operative vaginal delivery. Clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2001; 74: 6976.
  • 17
    Pezzilli R, Billi P, Miniero R, Fiocchi M, Cappelletti O, Morselli-Labate AM, Barakat B, Sprovieri G, Miglioli M. Serum interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and beta 2-microglobulin in early assessment of severity of acute pancreatitis. Comparison with serum C-reactive protein. Dig Dis Sci 1995; 40: 23412348.
  • 18
    Normal Labor and Delivery. In Williams Obstetrics (22nd edn), Cunningham FG, Hauth JC, Leveno KJ, Gilstrap LC III, Bloom SL, Wenstrom KD (eds). McGraw-Hill: New York, NY, 2005; 409442.
  • 19
    Doumouchtsis SK, Arulkumaran S. Operative vaginal deliveries: indications, techniques and complications. In Best Practice in Labour and Delivery, Warren R, Arulkumaran S (eds). Cambridge University Press: New York, NY, 2009; 98.
  • 20
    Cunningham FG, Hauth JC, Leveno KJ, Gilstrap LC III, Bloom SL, Wenstrom KD. Maternal anatomy. In Williams Obstetrics (22nd edn), Cunningham FG, Hauth JC, Leveno KJ, Gilstrap LC III, Bloom SL, Wenstrom KD (eds). McGraw-Hill: New York, NY, 2005: 1338.
  • 21
    Janni W, Schiessl B, Peschers U, Huber S, Strobl B, Hantschmann P, Uhlmann N, Dimpfl T, Rammel G, Kainer F. The prognostic impact of a prolonged second stage of labor on maternal and fetal outcome. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2002; 81: 214221.
  • 22
    Berghella V, Baxter JK, Chauhan SP. Evidence-based labor and delivery management. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008; 199: 445454.
  • 23
    National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Intrapartum care: management and delivery of care to women in labour. 2007. Clinical Guideline No. 55. [Accessed 8 June 2012].
  • 24
    Altman MR, Lydon-Rochelle MT. Prolonged second stage of labor and risk of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes: a systematic review. Birth 2006; 33: 315322.
  • 25
    Menticoglou SM, Manning F, Harman C, Morrison I. Perinatal outcome in relation to second-stage duration. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995; 173: 906912.
  • 26
    Cunningham F, MacDonald PC, Gant NF, Leveno KJ, Gilstrap LC, Hankins GD, Clark SL. Conduct of normal labor and delivery. In Williams Obstetrics, vol. 1, Lange A (ed). Appleton Lange: Stamford, CT, 1997; 409443.
  • 27
    Duckelmann AM, Bamberg C, Michaelis SA, Lange J, Nonnenmacher A, Dudenhausen JW, Kalache KD. Measurement of fetal head descent using the ‘angle of progression’ on transperineal ultrasound imaging is reliable regardless of fetal head station or ultrasound expertise. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2010; 35: 216222.