• 1
    Chauhan SP, Scardo JA, Hayes E, Abuhamad AZ, Berghella V. Twins: prevalence, problems, and preterm births. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010; 203: 305315.
  • 2
    Miller J, Chauhan SP, Abuhamad AZ. Discordant twins: diagnosis, evaluation and management. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2012; 206: 1020.
  • 3
    Sonntag J, Waltz S, Schollmeyer T, Schuppler U, Schroder H, Weisner D. Morbidity and mortality of discordant twins up to 34 weeks of gestational age. Eur J Pediatr 1996; 155: 224229.
  • 4
    Hollier LM, McIntire DD, Leveno KJ. Outcome of twin pregnancies according to intrapair birth weight differences. Obstet Gynecol 1999; 94: 10061010.
  • 5
    Victoria A, Mora G, Arias F. Perinatal outcome, placental pathology, and severity of discordance in monochorionic and dichorionic twins. Obstet Gynecol 2001; 97: 310315.
  • 6
    Hartley RS, Hitti J, Emanuel I. Size-discordant twin pairs have higher perinatal mortality rates than nondiscordant pairs. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002; 187: 11731178.
  • 7
    Demissie K, Ananth CV, Martin J, Hanley ML, MacDorman MF, Rhoads GG. Fetal and neonatal mortality among twin gestations in the United States: the role of intrapair birth weight discordance. Obstet Gynecol 2002; 100: 474480.
  • 8
    Redman ME, Blackwell SC, Refuerzo JS, Kruger M, Naccasha N, Hassan SS, Berry SM. The ninety-fifth percentile for growth discordance predicts complications of twin pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002; 187: 667671.
  • 9
    Branum AM, Schoendorf KC. The effect of birth weight discordance on twin neonatal mortality. Obstet Gynecol 2003; 101: 570574.
  • 10
    Amaru RC, Bush MC, Berkowitz RL, Lapinski RH, Gaddipati S. Is discordant growth in twins an independent risk factor for adverse neonatal outcome? Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 7176.
  • 11
    Blickstein I, Mincha S, Goldman RD, Machin GA, Keith LG. The Northwestern twin chorionicity study: testing the ‘placental crowding’ hypothesis. J Perinat Med 2006; 34: 158161.
  • 12
    Breathnach FM, McAuliffe FM, Geary M, Daly S, Higgins JR, Dornan J, Morrison JJ, Burke G, Higgins S, Dicker P, Manning F, Mahony R, Malone FD; Perinatal Ireland Research Consortium. Definition of intertwin birth weight discordance. Obstet Gynecol 2011; 118: 94103.
  • 13
    Sebire NJ, D'Ercole C, Soares W, Nayar R, Nicolaides KH. Intertwin disparity in fetal size in monochorionic and dichorionic pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol 1998; 91: 8285.
  • 14
    Kalish RB, Chasen ST, Gupta M, Sharma G, Perni SC, Chervenak FA. First trimester prediction of growth discordance in twin gestations. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003; 189: 706709.
  • 15
    Salomon LJ, Cavicchioni O, Bernard JP, Duyme M, Ville Y. Growth discrepancy in twins in the first trimester of pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005; 26: 512516.
  • 16
    Kalish RB, Gupta M, Perni SC, Berman S, Chasen ST. Clinical significance of first trimester crown–rump length disparity in dichorionic twin gestations. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 14371440.
  • 17
    Bartha JL, Ling Y, Kyle P, Soothill PW. Clinical consequences of first-trimester growth discordance in twins. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2005; 119: 5659.
  • 18
    Tai J, Grobman WA. The association of crown–rump length discordance in twin gestations with adverse perinatal outcomes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007; 197: 369.e14.
  • 19
    Banks CL, Nelson SM, Owen P. First and third trimester ultrasound in the prediction of birthweight discordance in dichorionic twins. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2008; 138: 3438.
  • 20
    Bhide A, Sankaran S, Sairam S, Papageorghiou AT, Thilaganathan B. Relationship of intertwin crown–rump length discrepancy to chorionicity, fetal demise and birth-weight discordance. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2009; 34:131135.
  • 21
    Bora SA, Bourne T, Bottomley C, Kirk E, Papageorghiou AT. Twin growth discrepancy in early pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2009; 34: 3842.
  • 22
    Fareeduddin R, Williams J 3rd, Solt I, Mirocha JM, Kim MJ, Rotmensch S. Discordance of first-trimester crown–rump length is a predictor of adverse outcomes in structurally normal euploid dichorionic twins. J Ultrasound Med 2010; 29: 14391443.
  • 23
    Shahshahan Z, Hashemi M. Crown–rump length discordance in twins in the first trimester and its correlation with perinatal complications. J Res Med Sci 2011; 16: 12241227.
  • 24
    Memmo A, Dias T, Mahsud-Dornan S, Papageorghiou AT, Bhide A, Thilaganathan B. Prediction of selective fetal growth restriction and twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome in monochorionic twins. BJOG 2012; 119: 417421.
  • 25
    Weissmann-Brenner A, Weisz B, Achiron R, Shrim A. Can discordance in CRL at the first trimester predict birth weight discordance in twin pregnancies? J Perinat Med 2012; 40: 489493.
  • 26
    Harper LM, Roehl KA, Odibo AO, Cahill AG. First-trimester growth discordance and adverse pregnancy outcome in dichorionic twins. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2013; 41: 627631.
  • 27
    Dias T, Mahsud-Dornan S, Thilaganathan B, Papageorghiou A, Bhide A. First-trimester ultrasound dating of twin pregnancy: are singleton charts reliable? BJOG 2010; 117: 979984.
  • 28
    Dias T, Arcangeli T, Bhide A, Napolitano R, Mahsud-Dornan S, Thilaganathan B. First-trimester ultrasound determination of chorionicity in twin pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2011; 38: 530532.
  • 29
    Hadlock FP, Harrist RB, Sharman RS, Deter RL, Park SK. Estimation of fetal weight with the use of head, body, and femur measurements – a prospective study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985; 151: 333337.
  • 30
    Yudkin PL, Aboualfa M, Eyre JA, Redman CW, Wilkinson AR. New birthweight and head circumference centiles for gestational ages 24 to 42 weeks. Early Hum Dev 1987; 15: 4552.
  • 31
    National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health. Multiple pregnancy. The management of twin and triplet pregnancies in the antenatal period. Commissioned by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence, September 2011.
  • 32
    Visintin C, Mugglestone MA, James D, Kilby MD; Guideline Development Group. Antenatal care for twin and triplet pregnancies: summary of NICE guidance. BMJ 2011; 343: d5714.
  • 33
    Blickstein I. Is it normal for multiples to be smaller than singletons? Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 18: 613623.
  • 34
    Bilardo CM, Timmerman E, Pajkrt E, van Maarle M. Increased nuchal translucency in euploid fetuses – what should we be telling the parents? Prenat Diagn 2010; 30: 93102.
  • 35
    Fajardo-Expósito MA, Hervías B, González FB, Melero-Jiménez V, Quintero-Prado R, Facio-Fernández MC, Bartha JL. First trimester fetal head and trunk volume predict growth disturbance in twin pregnancy. Prenat Diagn 2011; 31: 543547.
  • 36
    El Kateb A, Nasr B, Nassar M, Bernard JP, Ville Y. First-trimester ultrasound examination and the outcome of monochorionic twin pregnancies. Prenat Diagn 2007; 27: 922925.
  • 37
    Kagan KO, Gazzoni A, Sepulveda-Gonzalez G, Sotiriadis A, Nicolaides KH. Discordance in nuchal translucency thickness in the prediction of severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2007; 29: 527532.
  • 38
    Fratelli N, Prefumo F, Fichera A, Valcamonico A, Marella D, Frusca T. Nuchal translucency thickness and crown rump length discordance for the prediction of outcome in monochorionic diamniotic pregnancies. Early Hum Dev 2011; 87: 2730.
  • 39
    Matias A, Maiz N, Montenegro N, Nicolaides K. Ductus venosus flow at 11–13 weeks in the prediction of birth weight discordance in monochorionic twins. J Perinat Med 2011; 39: 467470.