• 1
    Haylen BT, de Ridder D, Freeman RM, Swift SE, Berghmans B, Lee J, Monga A, Petri E, Rizk DE, Sand PK, Schaer GN. An International Urogynecological Association (IUGA)/International Continence Society (ICS) joint report on the terminology for female pelvic floor dysfunction. Int Urogynecol J 2010; 21: 526.
  • 2
    Devreese A, Staes F, De Weerdt W, Feys H, Van Assche A, Penninckx F, Vereecken R. Clinical evaluation of pelvic floor muscle function in continent and incontinent women. Neurourol Urodyn 2004; 23: 190197.
  • 3
    Lovegrove Jones RC, Peng Q, Stokes M, Humphrey VF, Payne C, Constantinou CE. Mechanisms of pelvic floor muscle function and the effect on the urethra during a cough. Eur Urol 2010; 57: 11011110.
  • 4
    Ashton-Miller JA, DeLancey JO. Functional anatomy of the female pelvic floor. Ann NY Acad Sci 2007; 1101: 266296.
  • 5
    Slieker-ten Hove M, Pool-Goudzwaard A, Eijkemans M, Steegers-Theunissen R, Burger C, Vierhout M. Pelvic floor muscle function in a general population of women with and without pelvic organ prolapse. Int Urogynecol J 2010; 21: 311319.
  • 6
    Yang JM, Yang SH, Huang WC, Tzeng CR. Impact of two reflex pelvic floor muscle contraction patterns on female stress urinary incontinence. Ultraschall Med 2012 [Epub ahead of print].
  • 7
    Yang JM, Yang SH, Yang SY, Yang E, Huang WC. Reliability of real-time ultrasound to detect pelvic floor muscle contraction in urinary incontinent women. J Urol 2009; 182: 23922396.
  • 8
    Yang SH, Huang WC, Yang SY, Yang E, Yang JM. Validation of new ultrasound parameters for quantifying pelvic floor muscle contraction. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2009; 33: 465471.
  • 9
    Peng Q, Jones RC, Constantinou CE. 2D Ultrasound image processing in identifying response of urogenital structures to pelvic floor muscle activity. Ann Biomed Eng 2006; 34: 477493.
  • 10
    Dietz HP, Steensma AB, Vancaillie TG. Levator function in nulliparous women. Int Urogynecol J 2003; 14: 2426.
  • 11
    Constantinou CE. Dynamics of female pelvic floor function using urodynamics, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2009; 144 (Suppl 1): S159S165.
  • 12
    Foldes P, Buisson O. The clitoral complex: a dynamic sonographic study. J Sex Med 2009; 6: 12231231.
  • 13
    Vereecken RL, Verduyn H. The electrical activity of the paraurethral and perineal muscles in normal and pathological conditions. Br J Urol 1970; 42: 457463.
  • 14
    Dietz HP, Bond V, Shek KL. Does childbirth alter the reflex pelvic floor response to coughing? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012; 39: 569573.
  • 15
    Dietz HP, Erdmann M, Shek KL. Reflex contraction of the levator ani in women symptomatic for pelvic floor disorders. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012; 40: 215218.
  • 16
    Barber MD, Bremer RE, Thor KB, Dolber PC, Kuehl TJ, Coates KW. Innervation of the female levator ani muscles. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002; 187: 6471.
  • 17
    Grigorescu BA, Lazarou G, Olson TR, Downie SA, Powers K, Greston WM, Mikhail MS. Innervation of the levator ani muscles: description of the nerve branches to the pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus, and puborectalis muscles. Int Urogynecol J 2008; 19: 107116.
  • 18
    Lefaucheur J, Yiou R, Thomas C. Pudendal nerve teriminal motor latency: age effects and technical consideration. Clin Neurophysiol 2001; 112: 472476.
  • 19
    Sultan AH, Kamm MA, Hudson CN. Pudendal nerve damage during labour: prospective study before and after childbirth. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1994; 101: 2228.
  • 20
    Boyle DJ, Knowles CH, Murphy J, Bhan C, Williams NS, Scott MS, Lunniss PJ. The effect of age and childbirth on anal sphincter function and morphology in 999 symptomatic female patients with colorectal dysfunction. Dis Colon Rectum 2012; 55: 286293.
  • 21
    Rizk DE, Fahim MA. Ageing of the female pelvic floor: towards treatment a la carte of the ‘geripause’. Int Urogynecol J 2008; 19: 455458.
  • 22
    Jundt K, Kiening M, Fischer P, Bergauer F, Rauch E, Janni W, Peschers U, Dimpfl T. Is the histomorphological concept of the female pelvic floor and its changes due to age and vaginal delivery correct? Neurourol Urodyn 2005; 24: 4450.
  • 23
    Dimpfl T, Jaeger C, Mueller-Felber W, Anthuber C, Hirsch A, Brandmaier R, Schuessler B. Myogenic changes of the levator ani muscle in premenopausal women: the impact of vaginal delivery and age. Neurourol Urodyn 1998; 17: 197205.
  • 24
    Pierce LM, Baumann S, Rankin MR, Wasserman RM, Biaggi A, Kuehl TJ, Coates KW. Levator ani muscle and connective tissue changes associated with pelvic organ prolapse, parity, and aging in the squirrel monkey: a histologic study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007; 197: 60.e19.
  • 25
    Miller JM, Brandon C, Jacobson JA, Low LK, Zielinski R, Ashton-Miller J, Delancey JO. MRI findings in patients considered high risk for pelvic floor injury studied serially after vaginal childbirth. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2010; 195: 786791.
  • 26
    DeLancey JO, Morgan DM, Fenner DE, Kearney R, Guire K, Miller JM, Hussain H, Umek W, Hsu Y, Ashton-Miller JA. Comparison of levator ani muscle defects and function in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse. Obstet Gynecol 2007; 109: 295302.
  • 27
    Augsburger HR, Eggenberger M. Histochemical and stereological analysis of the levator ani (pubocaudal) muscle in nulliparous and multiparous beagles. Theriogenology 2005; 64: 144154.
  • 28
    Trowbridge ER, Wei JT, Fenner DE, Ashton-Miller JA, DeLancey JO. Effects of aging on lower urinary tract and pelvic floor function in nulliparous women. Obstet Gynecol 2007; 109: 715720.
  • 29
    Barbič M, Kralj B, Cör A. Compliance of the bladder neck supporting structures: importance of activity pattern of levator ani muscle and content of elastic fibers of endopelvic fascia. Neurourol Urodyn 2003; 22: 269276.
  • 30
    Elbadawi A. Structural basis of voiding dysfunction. In Female Urology (3rd edn), Raz S, Rodriguez LV (eds). Saunders: Philadelphia (PA), 2008; 1225.