• 1
    Cohen BF, Penning S, Major C, Ansley D, Porto M, Garite T. Sonographic prediction of shoulder dystocia in infants of diabetic mothers. Obstet Gynecol 1996; 88: 1013.
  • 2
    Cohen BF, Penning S, Ansley D, Porto M, Garite T. The incidence and severity of shoulder dystocia correlates with a sonographic measurement of asymmetry in patients with diabetes. Am J Perinatol 1999; 16: 197201.
  • 3
    Miller RS, Devine PC, Johnson EB. Sonographic fetal asymmetry predicts shoulder dystocia. J Ultrasound Med 2007; 26: 15231528.
  • 4
    Rajan PV, Chung JH, Porto M, Wing DA. Correlation of increased fetal asymmetry with shoulder dystocia in the nondiabetic woman with suspected macrosomia. J Reprod Med 2009; 54: 478482.
  • 5
    Belfort MA, White GL, Vermeulen FM. Association of fetal cranial shape with shoulder dystocia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012; 39: 304309.
  • 6
    Kurmanavicius J, Wright EM, Royston P, Wisser J, Huch R, Huch A, Zimmermann R. Fetal ultrasound biometry: 1. Head reference values. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1999; 106: 126135.
  • 7
    Kurmanavicius J, Wright EM, Royston P, Zimmermann R, Huch R, Huch A, Wisser J. Fetal ultrasound biometry: 2. Abdomen and femur length reference values. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1999; 106: 136143.
  • 8
    Hadlock FP, Harrist RB, Sharman RS, Deter RL, Park SK. Estimation of fetal weight with the use of head, body, and femur measurements – a prospective study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985; 151: 333337.
  • 9
    Kurmanavicius J, Burkhardt T, Wisser J, Huch R. Ultrasonographic fetal weight estimation: accuracy of formulas and accuracy of examiners by birth weight from 500 to 5000 g. J Perinat Med 2004; 32: 155161.
  • 10
    Sokol RJ, Blackwell SC. ACOG practice bulletin: Shoulder dystocia. Number 40, November 2002. (Replaces practice pattern number 7, October 1997). Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2003; 80: 8792.
  • 11
    Jazayeri A, Heffron JA, Phillips R, Spellacy WN. Macrosomia prediction using ultrasound fetal abdominal circumference of 35 centimeters or more. Obstet Gynecol 1999; 93: 523526.
  • 12
    Nesbitt TS, Gilbert WM, Herrchen B. Shoulder dystocia and associated risk factors with macrosomic infants born in California. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998; 179: 476480.
  • 13
    Langer O, Berkus MD, Huff RW, Samueloff A. Shoulder dystocia: should the fetus weighing greater than or equal to 4000 grams be delivered by cesarean section? Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991; 165(4 Pt 1): 831837.
  • 14
    McFarland MB, Trylovich CG, Langer O. Anthropometric differences in macrosomic infants of diabetic and nondiabetic mothers. J Matern Fetal Med 1998; 7: 292295.
    Direct Link:
  • 15
    Modanlou HD, Komatsu G, Dorchester W, Freeman RK, Bosu SK. Large-for-gestational-age neonates: anthropometric reasons for shoulder dystocia. Obstet Gynecol 1982; 60: 417423.