Likelihood ratio for trisomy 21 in fetuses with tricuspid regurgitation at the 11 to 13 + 6-week scan

Authors


Abstract

Objective

To determine the likelihood ratio for trisomy 21 in fetuses with tricuspid regurgitation at the 11 to 13 + 6-week scan.

Methods

Fetal echocardiography was carried out by specialist pediatric cardiologists in 742 singleton pregnancies at 11 to 13 + 6 weeks' gestation and pulsed wave Doppler was used to ascertain the presence or absence of tricuspid regurgitation. To avoid confusion with other adjacent signals, a strict definition of tricuspid regurgitation was used, in that it had to occupy at least half of systole and reach a velocity of over 80 cm/s. The fetal crown–rump length (CRL) and the nuchal translucency (NT) thickness were measured and the presence of any congenital heart abnormality noted. Follow-up of the pregnancy was carried out to determine the presence of chromosomal abnormalities. The likelihood ratio for trisomy 21 in fetuses with and without tricuspid regurgitation was determined.

Results

The tricuspid valve was successfully examined in 718 (96.8%) cases. Tricuspid regurgitation was present in 39 (8.5%) of the 458 chromosomally normal fetuses, in 82 (65.1%) of the 126 with trisomy 21, in 44 (53.0%) of the 83 with trisomy 18 or 13, and in 11 (21.6%) of the 51 with other chromosomal defects. The prevalence of tricuspid regurgitation was also associated with fetal CRL, delta NT and the presence of cardiac defects. Logistic regression analysis, irrespective of cardiac defects, demonstrated that in the chromosomally normal fetuses significant independent prediction of the likelihood of tricuspid regurgitation was provided by fetal delta NT (odds ratio (OR), 1.26; 95% CI, 1.34–1.41; P < 0.0001), while in trisomy 21 fetuses prediction was provided by CRL (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89–0.99; P = 0.021). The likelihood ratio for trisomy 21 for tricuspid regurgitation was derived by dividing the likelihood in trisomy 21 by that in normal fetuses. In the chromosomally normal fetuses, the prevalence of tricuspid regurgitation in those with cardiac defects was 46.9% and 5.6% in those without cardiac defects, and the likelihood ratio of tricuspid regurgitation for cardiac defects was 8.4.

Conclusion

At 11 to 13 + 6 weeks' gestation, there is a high association between tricuspid regurgitation and trisomy 21, as well as other chromosomal defects. The prevalence of tricuspid regurgitation increases with fetal NT thickness and is substantially higher in those with, than those without, a cardiac defect. Copyright © 2005 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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