• 1
    Espinoza J, Goncalves LF, Romero R, Nien JK, Stites S, Kim YM, Hassan S, Gomez R, Yoon BH, Chaiworapongsa T, Lee W, Mazor M. The prevalence and clinical significance of amniotic fluid “sludge” in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005; 25: 346352.
  • 2
    Bujold E, Pasquier JC, Simoneau J, Arpin MH, Duperron L, Morency AM, Audibert F. Intra-amniotic sludge, short cervix, and risk of preterm delivery. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2006; 28: 198202.
  • 3
    Kusanovic JP, Espinoza J, Romero R, Goncalves LF, Nien JK, Soto E, Khalek N, Camacho N, Hendler I, Mittal P, Friel LA, Gotsch F, Erez O, Than NG, Mazaki-Tovi S, Schoen ML, Hassan SS. Clinical significance of the presence of amniotic fluid ‘sludge’ in asymptomatic patients at high risk for spontaneous preterm delivery. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2007; 30: 706714.
  • 4
    Romero R, Gonzalez R, Baumann P, Behnke E, Rittenhouse L, Barberio D, Cotton DB, Mitchell MD. Topographic differences in amniotic fluid concentrations of prostanoids in women in spontaneous labor at term. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1994; 50: 97104.
  • 5
    Baumann P, Romero R, Gonzales R, Cotton DB, Mammen E. Evidence of topographic differences in amniotic fluid plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor concentrations during spontaneous active labor at term. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994; 170: 270.
  • 6
    Esplin MS, Romero R, Chaiworapongsa T, Kim YM, Edwin S, Gomez R, Gonzalez R, Adashi EY. Amniotic fluid levels of immunoreactive monocyte chemotactic protein-1 increase during term parturition. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2003; 14: 5156.
  • 7
    Benacerraf BR, Gatter MA, Ginsburgh F. Ultrasound diagnosis of meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1984; 149: 570572.
  • 8
    DeVore GR, Platt LD. Ultrasound appearance of particulate matter in amniotic cavity: vernix or meconium? J Clin Ultrasound 1986; 14: 229230.
  • 9
    Sepulveda WH, Quiroz VH. Sonographic detection of echogenic amniotic fluid and its clinical significance. J Perinat Med 1989; 17: 333335.
  • 10
    Sherer DM, Abramowicz JS, Smith SA, Woods JR, Jr. Sonographically homogeneous echogenic amniotic fluid in detecting meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Obstet Gynecol 1991; 78: 819822.
  • 11
    Vohra N, Rochelson B, Smith-Levitin M. Three-dimensional sonographic findings in congenital (harlequin) ichthyosis. J Ultrasound Med 2003; 22: 737739.
  • 12
    Rust O, Atlas R, Rawlinson K, Gaalen JV, Balducci J. Sonographic description of the cervix at risk for preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001; 184: S41.
  • 13
    Hassan S, Romero R, Hendler I, Gomez R, Khalek N, Espinoza J, Nien JK, Berry SM, Bujold E, Camacho N, Sorokin Y. A sonographic short cervix as the only clinical manifestation of intra-amniotic infection. J Perinat Med 2006; 34: 1319.
  • 14
    Gomez R, Romero R, Nien JK, Chaiworapongsa T, Medina L, Kim YM, Yoon BH, Carstens M, Espinoza J, Iams JD, Gonzalez R. A short cervix in women with preterm labor and intact membranes: a risk factor for microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005; 192: 678689.
  • 15
    Romero R, Gomez R, Araneda H, Ramirez M, Cotton DB. Cervical mucus inhibits microbial growth: a host defense mechanism to prevent ascending infection in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993; 168: 312.
  • 16
    Helmig R, Uldbjerg N, Ohlsson K. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in the cervical mucus and in the fetal membranes. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1995; 59: 95101.
  • 17
    Svinarich DM, Wolf NA, Gomez R, Gonik B, Romero R. Detection of human defensin 5 in reproductive tissues. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997; 176: 470475.
  • 18
    Eggert-Kruse W, Botz I, Pohl S, Rohr G, Strowitzki T. Antimicrobial activity of human cervical mucus. Hum Reprod 2000; 15: 778784.
  • 19
    Hein M, Helmig RB, Schonheyder HC, Ganz T, Uldbjerg N. An in vitro study of antibacterial properties of the cervical mucus plug in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001; 185: 586592.
  • 20
    Hein M, Valore EV, Helmig RB, Uldbjerg N, Ganz T. Antimicrobial factors in the cervical mucus plug. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002; 187: 137144.
  • 21
    Evaldson G, Malmborg AS, Nord CE, Ostensson K. Bacteroides fragilis, Streptococcus intermedius and group B streptococci in ascending infection of pregnancy. An animal experimental study. Gynecol Obstet Invest 1983; 15: 230241.
  • 22
    Galask RP, Varner MW, Petzold CR, Wilbur SL. Bacterial attachment to the chorioamniotic membranes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1984; 148: 915928.
  • 23
    Donlan RM. Biofilms: microbial life on surfaces. Emerg Infect Dis 2002; 8: 881890.
  • 24
    Donlan RM, Costerton JW. Biofilms: survival mechanisms of clinically relevant microorganisms. Clin Microbiol Rev 2002; 15: 167193.
  • 25
    Costerton W, Veeh R, Shirtliff M, Pasmore M, Post C, Ehrlich G. The application of biofilm science to the study and control of chronic bacterial infections. J Clin Invest 2003; 112: 14661477.
  • 26
    Donlan RM. Role of biofilms in antimicrobial resistance. ASAIO J 2000; 46: S47S52.
  • 27
    Buhimschi I, Christner R, Buhimschi C, Chaiworapongsa T, Romero R. Proteomic analysis of preterm parturition: a novel method of identifying the patient at risk for preterm delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002; 187: S55.
  • 28
    Espinoza J, Chaiworapongsa T, Romero R, Edwin S, Rathnasabapathy C, Gomez R, Bujold E, Camacho N, Kim YM, Hassan S, Blackwell S, Whitty J, Berman S, Redman M, Yoon BH, Sorokin Y. Antimicrobial peptides in amniotic fluid: defensins, calprotectin and bacterial/permeability-increasing protein in patients with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity, intra-amniotic inflammation, preterm labor and premature rupture of membranes. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2003; 13: 221.
  • 29
    Soto E, Espinoza J, Nien JK, Kusanovic JP, Erez O, Richani K, Santolaya-Forgas J, Romero R. Human beta-defensin-2: a natural antimicrobial peptide present in amniotic fluid participates in the host response to microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2007; 20: 1522.
  • 30
    Sung JY, Leung JW, Shaffer EA, Lam K, Olson ME, Costerton JW. Ascending infection of the biliary tract after surgical sphincterotomy and biliary stenting. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1992; 7: 240245.
  • 31
    Sung JY, Leung JW, Shaffer EA, Lam K, Costerton JW. Bacterial biofilm, brown pigment stone and blockage of biliary stents. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1993; 8: 2834.
  • 32
    Sosna J, Kruskal JB, Copel L, Goldberg SN, Kane RA. US-guided percutaneous cholecystostomy: features predicting culture-positive bile and clinical outcome. Radiology 2004; 230: 785791.
  • 33
    Jensen ET, Kharazmi A, Lam K, Costerton JW, Hoiby N. Human polymorphonuclear leukocyte response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown in biofilms. Infect Immun 1990; 58: 23832385.
  • 34
    Jensen ET, Kharazmi A, Hoiby N, Costerton JW. Some bacterial parameters influencing the neutrophil oxidative burst response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. APMIS 1992; 100: 727733.
  • 35
    Stewart PS, Costerton JW. Antibiotic resistance of bacteria in biofilms. Lancet 2001; 358: 135138.
  • 36
    Stewart PS. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in bacterial biofilms. Int J Med Microbiol 2002; 292: 107113.
  • 37
    Fergie N, Bayston R, Pearson JP, Birchall JP. Is otitis media with effusion a biofilm infection? Clin Otolaryngol 2004; 29: 3846.
  • 38
    Post JC. Direct evidence of bacterial biofilms in otitis media. Laryngoscope 2001; 111: 20832094.
  • 39
    Post JC, Preston RA, Aul JJ, Larkins-Pettigrew M, Rydquist-White J, Anderson KW, Wadowsky RM, Reagan DR, Walker ES, Kingsley LA, Magit AE, Ehrlich GD. Molecular analysis of bacterial pathogens in otitis media with effusion. JAMA 1995; 273: 15981604.
  • 40
    Hall-Stoodley L, Hu FZ, Gieseke A, Nistico L, Nguyen D, Hayes J, Forbes M, Greenberg DP, Dice B, Burrows A, Wackym PA, Stoodley P, Post JC, Ehrlich GD, Kerschner JE. Direct detection of bacterial biofilms on the middle-ear mucosa of children with chronic otitis media. JAMA 2006; 296: 202211.
  • 41
    Yoon BH, Romero R, Kim M, Kim EC, Kim T, Park JS, Jun JK. Clinical implications of detection of Ureaplasma urealyticum in the amniotic cavity with the polymerase chain reaction. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 183: 11301137.
  • 42
    Yoon BH, Romero R, Lim JH, Shim SS, Hong JS, Shim JY, Jun JK. The clinical significance of detecting Ureaplasma urealyticum by the polymerase chain reaction in the amniotic fluid of patients with preterm labor. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003; 189: 919924.
  • 43
    Romero R, Espinoza J, Mazor M. Can endometrial infection/inflammation explain implantation failure, spontaneous abortion, and preterm birth after in vitro fertilization? Fertil Steril 2004; 82: 799804.
  • 44
    Ansbacher R, Boyson WA, Morris JA. Sterility of the uterine cavity. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1967; 99: 394396.
  • 45
    Duff P, Gibbs RS, Blanco JD, St Clair PJ. Endometrial culture techniques in puerperal patients. Obstet Gynecol 1983; 61: 217222.
  • 46
    Moller BR, Kristiansen FV, Thorsen P, Frost L, Mogensen SC. Sterility of the uterine cavity. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1995; 74: 216219.
  • 47
    Marrie TJ, Costerton JW. A scanning and transmission electron microscopic study of the surfaces of intrauterine contraceptive devices. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1983; 146: 384394.
  • 48
    Bank HL, Williamson HO. Scanning electron microscopy of Dalkon Shield tails. Fertil Steril 1983; 40: 334339.
  • 49
    Jacques M, Olson ME, Costerton JW. Microbial colonization of tailed and tailless intrauterine contraceptive devices: influence of the mode of insertion in the rabbit. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1986; 154: 648655.