The contribution of F. Gotsch and R. Romero to this article was prepared as part of their official duties as United States Government employees.
Fetal growth parameters and birth weight: their relationship to neonatal body composition
Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2009
Copyright © 2009 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Volume 33, Issue 4, pages 441–446, April 2009
How to Cite
Lee, W., Balasubramaniam, M., Deter, R. L., Hassan, S. S., Gotsch, F., Kusanovic, J. P., Gonçalves, L. F. and Romero, R. (2009), Fetal growth parameters and birth weight: their relationship to neonatal body composition. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol, 33: 441–446. doi: 10.1002/uog.6317
- Issue online: 23 MAR 2009
- Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2009
- Manuscript Accepted: 7 NOV 2008
- Perinatology Research Branch, Division of Intramural Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health
- Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services
- 1A practical classification of newborn infants by weight and gestational age. J Pediatr 1967; 71: 159–163., .
- 2Longitudinal studies of thigh circumference growth in normal fetuses. J Clin Ultrasound 1987; 15: 388–393., , , , .
- 3Fetal limb volume: a new parameter to assess fetal growth and nutrition. J Ultrasound Med 1985; 4: 273–282., , .
- 4The cheek-to-cheek diameter in the ultrasonographic assessment of fetal growth. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991; 165: 846–852., , , .
- 5Subcutaneous tissue thickness cannot be used to distinguish abnormalities of fetal growth. Obstet Gynecol 1992; 80: 268–271., , , , , .
- 6Ultrasonographic measurements of cheek-to-cheek diameter in fetal growth disturbances. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993; 169: 405–408., , .
- 7Prediction of fetal macrosomia using sonographically measured abdominal subcutaneous tissue thickness. J Clin Ultrasound 1997; 25: 378–382., , , , .
- 8Three-dimensional qualitative sonographic evaluation of fetal soft tissue. Hum Reprod 2000; 15: 2438–2442., , .
- 9Antepartum detection of macrosomic fetus: clinical versus sonographic, including soft-tissue measurements. Obstet Gynecol 2000; 95: 639–642., , , , , .
- 10Reduction of subcutaneous mass, but not lean mass, in normal fetuses in Denver, Colorado. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001; 185: 839–844., , , , , , , .
- 11Fetal subcutaneous tissue thickness (SCTT) in healthy and gestational diabetic pregnancies. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2003; 22: 591–597., , , , , , , , , , .
- 12Differences in fat and lean mass proportions in normal and growth-restricted fetuses. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 1459–1464., , , , , .
- 13Intrauterine growth restriction and fetal body composition. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005; 26: 258–262., , , , , , , .
- 14Birthweight prediction by 3D ultrasonography: fractional limb volume. J Ultrasound Med 2001; 20: 1283–1292., , , , , .
- 15Practical assessment of neonatal nutrition status beyond birth weight: an imperative for the 1990s. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1994; 101: 842–846., .
- 16Body composition measurements: from the past to the future. Acta Paediatr Suppl 2005; 94: 8–13., .
- 17Body-composition assessment via air-displacement plethysmography in adults and children: a review. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 73: 453–467., , .
- 18Body-composition assessment in infancy: air-displacement plethysmography compared with a reference 4-compartment model. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 85: 90–95., , , , , .
- 19Postnatal growth failure in preterm infants: recovery of growth and body composition after term. Early Hum Dev 2008; 84: 555–559., , , , , , , .
- 20Impact of maternal body mass index on neonate birthweight and body composition. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008; 198: 416e1–416e6., , , , .
- 21Fetal crown–rump length: reevaluation of relation to menstrual age (5–18 weeks) with high-resolution real-time US. Radiology 1992; 182: 501–505., , , .
- 22Fetal biparietal diameter: a critical re-evaluation of the relationship to menstrual age by means of real-time ultrasound. J Ultrasound Med 1982; 1: 97–104., , , .
- 23Fetal head circumference: relation to menstrual age. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1982; 138: 649–653., , , .
- 24Fetal abdominal circumference as a predictor of menstrual age. AJR Am J Roentengol 1982; 139: 367–370., , , .
- 25Fetal femur length: a critical re-evaluation of the relationship to menstrual age. Obstet Gynecol 1985; 66: 69–75., , , , .
- 26Estimation of fetal weight with the use of head, body, and femur measurements. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985; 150: 333–337., , , , .
- 27Individualized growth assessment of fetal soft tissue using fractional thigh volume. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2004; 24: 766–774., , , , , , .
- 28The fetal arm: individualized growth assessment in normal pregnancies. J Ultrasound Med 2005; 24: 817–828., , , , , , , .
- 29Preliminary evaluation of a new pediatric displacement plethymograph for body composition in infants. Acta Diabetol 2003; 40: S55–S58., , , .
- 30Validation of a new pediatric air-displacement plethymograph for assessing body composition in infants. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 79: 653–660., , , , , , , , .
- 31Applied Linear Regression Models (4th edn). McGraw-Hill: New York, 2004., , .
- 32A systematic review of the ultrasound estimation of fetal weight. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005; 25: 80–89..
- 33Age and chemical development in mammals. J Biol Chem 1923; 57: 79–97..
- 34Body composition of the reference fetus. Growth 1976; 40: 329–341., , , .
- 35Body composition in human infants at birth and postnatally. J Nutr 2000; 130: 2188–2194., , .
- 36Adipose tissue in human infancy and childhood: an evolutionary perspective. Am J Phys Anthropol 1998; Suppl 27: 177–209..
- 37An estimate of the caloric requirements of the human fetus. Biol Neonate 1980; 38: 113–119., , .
- 38Aetiology, morphology, and body composition of infants born small for gestational age. Acta Paediatr Suppl 1997; 423: 173–176., , , , .
- 39Modified neonatal growth assessment score: a multivariate approach to the detection of intrauterine growth retardation in the neonate. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1990; 6: 400–410., , .
- 40Evaluation of fetal growth by estimation of neonatal body composition. Obstet Gynecol 1992; 79: 46–50., , , , .
- 41The effects of fetal blood sampling on ductus venosus blood velocity waveforms. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1995; 5: 241–246., , , , .
- 42Cardiotocogram compared to Doppler investigation of the fetal circulation in the premature growth-retarded fetus: longitudinal observations. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1997; 9: 152–161., .
- 43Assessment of left ventricular filling in normally grown fetuses, growth-restricted fetuses and fetuses of diabetic mothers. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1998; 12: 33–38., , , .
- 44Coronary artery blood flow visualization signifies hemodynamic deterioration in growth-restricted fetuses. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2000; 16: 425–431., , , , , .
- 45Monitoring of fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction: a longitudinal study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2001; 18: 564–570., , , , , , , .
- 46Relationship between monitoring parameters and perinatal outcome in severe, early intrauterine growth restriction. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2004; 23: 119–125., , , , , , .
- 47Doppler and biophysical assessment in growth restricted fetuses: distribution of test results. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2006; 27: 41–47., , , , , , , , .
- 48The midwife, the coincidence, and the hypothesis. BMJ 2003; 327: 1428–1430..
- 49Long-term consequences of low birth weight. Kidney Int Suppl 2005; 97: S107–S111., .
- 50Developmental origins of the metabolic syndrome: prediction, plasticity, and programming. Physiol Rev 2006; 85: 571–633., .
- 51Perinatal nutrition and hormone-dependent programming of food intake. Horm Res 2006; 65: 83–89..
- 52Fetal programming of body composition and musculoskeletal development. Early Hum Devel 2005; 81: 735–744., .
- 53Estimation of fetal weight: reference range at 20–36 weeks' gestation and comparison with actual birth-weight reference range. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2007; 29: 550–555., , .