• 1
    Baschat AA. Pathophysiology of fetal growth restriction: implications for diagnosis and surveillance. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2004; 59: 617627.
  • 2
    Prasad PV. Functional MRI of the kidney: tools for translational studies of pathophysiology of renal disease. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2006; 290: F958F974.
  • 3
    Prasad PV, Edelman RR, Epstein FH. Noninvasive evaluation of intrarenal oxygenation with BOLD MRI. Circulation 1996; 94: 32713275.
  • 4
    Pedersen M, Dissing TH, Mørkenborg J, Stødkilde-Jorgensen H, Hansen LH, Pedersen LB, Grenier N, Frøkiær J. Validation of quantitative BOLD MRI measurements in kidney: application to unilateral ureteral obstruction. Kidney Int 2005; 67: 23052312.
  • 5
    Semple SI, Wallis F, Haggarty P, Abramovich D, Ross JA, Redpath TW, Gilbert FJ. The measurement of fetal liver T(*)(2) in utero before and after maternal oxygen breathing: progress towards a non-invasive measurement of fetal oxygenation and placental function. Magn Reson Imaging 2001; 19: 921928.
  • 6
    Fulford J, Vadeyar SH, Dodampahala SH, Ong S, Moore RJ, Baker PN, James DK, Gowland P. Fetal brain activity and hemodynamic response to a vibroacoustic stimulus. Hum Brain Mapp 2004; 22: 116121.
  • 7
    Fulford J, Vadeyar SH, Dodampahala SH, Moore RJ, Young P, Baker PN, James DK, Gowland P. Fetal brain activity in response to a visual stimulus. Hum Brain Mapp 2003; 20: 239245.
  • 8
    Moore RJ, Vadeyar S, Fulford J, Tyler DJ, Gribben C, Baker PN, James DK, Gowland P. Antenatal determination of fetal brain activity in response to an acoustic stimulus using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Hum Brain Mapp 2001; 12: 9499.
  • 9
    Wedegärtner U, Tchirikov M, Schafer S, Priest AN, Kooijman H, Adam G, Schröder HJ. Functional MR imaging: comparison of BOLD signal intensity changes in fetal organs with fetal and maternal oxyhemoglobin saturation during hypoxia in sheep. Radiology 2006; 238: 872880.
  • 10
    Wedegärtner U, Tchirikov M, Schäfer S, Priest AN, Walther M, Adam G, Schröder HJ. Fetal sheep brains: findings at functional blood oxygen level-dependent 3-T MR imaging—relationship to maternal oxygen saturation during hypoxia. Radiology 2005; 237: 919926.
  • 11
    Wedegärtner U, Tchirikov M, Koch M, Adam G, Schröder H. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for fetal oxygenation during maternal hypoxia: initial results. Rofo 2002; 174: 700703.
  • 12
    Mahutte CK. On-line arterial blood gas analysis with optodes: current status. Clin Biochem 1998; 31: 119130.
  • 13
    Tomimatsu T, Pereyra Pena J, Hatran DP, Longo LD. Maternal oxygen administration and fetal cerebral oxygenation: studies on near-term fetal lambs at both low and high altitude. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006; 195: 535541.
  • 14
    Carter AM. Placental oxygen transfer and the oxygen supply to the fetus. Fetal Matern Med Rev 1999; 11: 151161.
  • 15
    Kennan RP, Scanley BE, Gore JC. Physiologic basis for BOLD MR signal changes due to hypoxia/hyperoxia: separation of blood volume and magnetic susceptibility effects. Magn Reson Med 1997; 37: 953956.
  • 16
    Nicolaides KH, Campbell S, Bradley RJ, Bilardo CM, Soothill PW, Gibb D. Maternal oxygen therapy for intrauterine growth retardation. Lancet 1987; 25: 942945.
  • 17
    Arduini D, Rizzo G, Mancuso S, Romanini C. Short-term effects of maternal oxygen administration on blood flow velocity waveforms in healthy and growth-retarded fetuses. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988; 159: 10771080.
  • 18
    Bekedam DJ, Mulder EJ, Snijders RJ, Visser GH. The effects of maternal hyperoxia on fetal breathing movements, body movements and heart rate variation in growth retarded fetuses. Early Hum Dev 1991; 27: 223232.
  • 19
    Arduini D, Rizzo G, Romanini C, Mancuso S. Hemodynamic changes in growth retarded fetuses during maternal oxygen administration as predictors of fetal outcome. J Ultrasound Med 1989; 8: 193196.
  • 20
    Caforio L, Caruso A, Testa AC, Pompei A, Ciampelli M. Short-term maternal oxygen administration in fetuses with absence or reversal of end-diastolic velocity in umbilical artery: pathophysiological and clinical considerations. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1998; 77: 707711.
  • 21
    Wilkening RB, Meschia G. Current topic: comparative physiology of placental oxygen transport. Placenta 1992; 13: 115.
  • 22
    Morrison JL. Sheep models of intrauterine growth restriction: fetal adaptations and consequences. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2008; 35: 730743.