Cure behavior and antimicrobial performance of sulfur-cured natural rubber vulcanizates containing 2-hydroxypropyl-3-piperazinylquinolinecarboxylic acid methacrylate or silver-substituted zeolite

Authors

  • Kanisorn Jai-eau,

    1. Polymer PROcessing and Flow (P-PROF) Research Group, Division of Material Technology, School of Energy, Environment, and Materials, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand
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  • Ekachai Wimolmala,

    1. Polymer PROcessing and Flow (P-PROF) Research Group, Division of Material Technology, School of Energy, Environment, and Materials, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand
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  • Narongrit Sombatsompop

    Corresponding author
    • Polymer PROcessing and Flow (P-PROF) Research Group, Division of Material Technology, School of Energy, Environment, and Materials, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand
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Correspondence to: Narongrit Sombatsompop; e-mail: narongrit.som@kmutt.ac.th

Abstract

This work used 2-hydroxypropyl-3-piperazinylquinolinecarboxylic acid methacrylate (HPQM) or silver-substituted zeolite (SSZ) as antibacterial agents for natural rubber (NR) compounds vulcanized by conventional vulcanization (CV), semi-efficient vulcanization, and efficient vulcanization (EV) systems. The cure behavior and antibacterial performance of the NR vulcanizates were studied by varying the loadings of HPQM or SSZ, contact times, and vulcanization systems. The antibacterial performance of the rubber compounds was examined by halo test and plate-count-agar methods against Escherichia coli (E. coli, ATCC 25922) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, ATCC 25923) as the testing bacteria. The cure time and crosslink density were dependent on the vulcanization recipe used but were not affected by the addition of HPQM or SSZ. Diphenylguanidine at the level of 1.0 phr (parts by weight per hundred parts of resin) in NR vulcanized by the EV system had the ability to kill the E. coli and S. aureus bacteria. The NR vulcanized by the CV system showed the most pronounced antibacterial performance, as compared with the other two vulcanization systems, via migration and diffusion of HPQM or SSZ onto the NR surfaces, this being identified by the relatively large reduction of contact angle values. The HPQM showed the most preference for NR compounds vulcanized with the CV system with a contact time of 120 min or longer to achieve a bacteria-killing efficacy of 99.0–99.9%, the efficacy being more pronounced for E. coli bacteria. J. VINYL ADDIT. TECHNOL., 19:123–131, 2013. © 2013 Society of Plastics Engineers

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