The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) is defined, and our present understanding of MOC driving mechanisms is summarized. Evidence for the changing MOC is reviewed, covering recent developments in observing and modeling the MOC, and the climatic consequences of MOC variability. On a timescale of the next 5-10 years, further developments in MOC monitoring, modeling and prediction are both anticipated and recommended. In the context of what is presently known about the MOC, the evidence for a recent slowing trend is considered. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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