SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Piaget J. To understand is to invent: The future of education. New York: Grossman Publishers; 1974.
  • 2
    Bruner JS. The act of discovery. Hard Educ Rev 1961, 31:2132.
  • 3
    Gopnik A, Glymour C, Sobel DM, Schulz LE, Kushnir T, Danks D. A theory of causal learning in children: causal maps and Bayes nets. Psychol Rev 2004, 111:332.
  • 4
    Schulz LE, Bonawitz EB. Serious fun: preschoolers engage in more exploratory play when evidence is confounded. Dev Psychol 2007, 43:10451050.
  • 5
    Mayer RE. Should there be a three-strikes rule against pure discovery learning? Am Psychol 2004, 59:1419.
  • 6
    Vygotsky LS. Mind in society: the development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 1978.
  • 7
    Chi MTH. Active-constructive-interactive: a conceptual framework for differentiating learning activities. Top Cogn Sci 2009, 1:73105.
  • 8
    Alfieri L, Brooks PJ, Aldrich NJ, Tenenbaum HR. Does discovery-based instruction enhance learning? J Educ Psychol 2010, 103:118.
  • 9
    Reiser BJ. Scaffolding complex learning: The mechanisms of structuring and problematizing student work. J Learn Sci 2004, 13:273304.
  • 10
    Montessori M. The secret of childhood. New York: Fides Publishers; 1966.
  • 11
    Siegler RS, Alibali MW. Children's thinking. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall; 2005.
  • 12
    Siegler RS. Three aspects of cognitive development. Cogn Psychol 1976, 8:481520.
  • 13
    Siegler RS, Chen Z. Developmental differences in rule learning: a microgenetic analysis. Cogn Psychol 1998, 36:273310.
  • 14
    Bjork RA. Memory and metamemory considerations in the training of human beings. In: Metcalfe J, Shimamura A, eds. Metacognition: knowing about knowing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; 1994, 185205.
  • 15
    Chen Z. Schema induction in children's analogical problem solving. J Educ Psychol 1999, 91:703715.
  • 16
    Namy LL, Gentner D. Making a silk purse out of two sow's ears: young children's use of comparison in category learning. J Exp Psychol Gen 2002, 131:515.
  • 17
    Gentner D, Loewenstein J, Thompson L. Learning and transfer: a general role for analogical encoding. J Educ Psychol 2003, 95:393408.
  • 18
    Schwartz DL, Martin T. Inventing to prepare for future learning: the hidden efficiency of encouraging original student production in statistics instruction. Cogn Instruct 2004, 22:129184.
  • 19
    Oakes LM, Ribar RJ. A comparison of infants' categorization in paired and successive presentation familiarization tasks. Infancy 2005, 7:8598.
  • 20
    Schwartz DL, Bransford JD. A time for telling. Cogn Instruct 1998, 16:475522.
  • 21
    Rittle-Johnson B, Star J. Does comparing solution methods facilitate conceptual and procedural knowledge? An experimental study on learning to solve equations. J Educ Psychol 2007, 99:561574.
  • 22
    Rittle-Johnson B, Star J. Compared to what? The effects of different comparisons on conceptual knowledge and procedural flexibility for equation solving. J Educ Psychol 2009, 101:529544.
  • 23
    Mory EH. Feedback research revisited. In: Jonassen DH, ed. Handbook of research on educational communications and technology. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, Inc.; 2004.
  • 24
    Hattie J, Timperley H. The power of feedback. Rev Educ Res 2007, 77:81112.
  • 25
    Chen Z, Siegler RS. Across the great divide: Bridging the gap between understanding of toddlers' and older children's thinking. Monogr Soc Res Child 2000, 65.
  • 26
    Chen Z, Klahr D. All other things being equal: acquisition and transfer of the control of variables strategy. Child Dev 1999, 70:10981120.
  • 27
    Shafrir U, Pascual-Leone J. Postfailure reflectivity/impulsivity and spontaneous attention to errors. J Educ Psychol 1990, 82:378387.
  • 28
    Metcalfe J, Kornell N. Principles of cognitive science in education: the effects of generation, errors and feedback. Psychon Bull Rev 14:225229.
  • 29
    Siegler RS. Implications of cognitive science research for mathematics education. In: Kilpatrick J, Martin WG, Schifter DE, eds. A research companion to principles and standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics; 119233.
  • 30
    Opfer JE, Siegler RS. Representational change and children's numerical estimation. Cogn Psychol 2007, 55:169195.
  • 31
    Chen Z, Mo L, Klahr D, Tong X, Qu C, Chen H. Learning to test hypotheses: kindergartners and elementary school children's acquisition of scientific reasoning strategies. 2011. In press.
  • 32
    Kluger AN, DeNisi A. The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychol Bull 1996, 119:254284.
  • 33
    Blanchette I, Dunbar K. How analogies are generated: the roles of structural and superficial similarity. Mem Cogn 2000, 28:108124.
  • 34
    Zook KB, Di Vesta FJ. Instructional analogies and conceptual misrepresentations. J Educ Psychol 1991, 83:246252.
  • 35
    Chen Z, Yanowitz KL, Daehler MW. Constraints on accessing abstract source information: instantiation of principles facilitates children's analogical transfer. J Educ Psychol 1995, 87:44554.
  • 36
    Needham DR, Begg IM. Problem-oriented training promotes spontaneous analogical transfer: memory-oriented training promotes memory for training. Mem Cogn 1991, 19:543557.
  • 37
    Gentner D, Rattermann MJ, Forbus KD. The roles of similarity in transfer: Separating retrievability from inferential soundness. Cogn Psychol 1993, 25:524575.
  • 38
    Dunbar K. The analogical paradox: Why analogy is so easy in naturalistic settings yet so difficult in the psychological laboratory. In: Gentner D, Holyoak KJ, eds. The analogical mind: perspectives from cognitive science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; 2001, 31334.
  • 39
    Siegler RS. Microgenetic studies of self-explanation. In: Granott N, Parziale J, eds. Microdevelopment: transition processes in development and learning. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2002, 3158.
  • 40
    VanLehn K. Cognitive Skill Acquisition. Annu Rev Psychol 1996, 47:513539.
  • 41
    Chi MTH, De Leeuw N, Chiu MH, LaVancher C. Eliciting self-explanations improves understanding. Cogn Sci 1994, 18:439477.
  • 42
    Rittle-Johnson B. Promoting transfer: effects of self-explanation and direct instruction. Child Dev 2006, 77:115.
  • 43
    Siegler RS, Chen Z. Differentiation and integration: guiding principles for analyzing cognitive change. Dev Sci 2008, 11:433448.
  • 44
    Siegler RS. How does change occur: a microgenetic study of number conservation. Cogn Psychol 1995, 28:225273.
  • 45
    Crowley K, Siegler RS. Explanation and generalization in young children's strategy learning. Child Dev 1999, 70:304316.
  • 46
    Chi MTH. Self-explaining expository texts: The dual processes of generating inferences and repairing mental models. In: Glaser R, ed. Advances in Instructional Psychology. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates; 2000, 161238.
  • 47
    Rittle-Johnson B, Saylor M, Swygert KE. Learning from explaining: does it matter if mom is listening? J Exp Child Psychol 2008, 100:215224.
  • 48
    Durkin K. The self-explanation effect when learning mathematics: a meta-analysis. Paper presented at Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, 2011.
  • 49
    Mugford R, Corey S, Bennell C, Martens C. A meta-analysis of the self-explanation effect. Poster presented at the 3rd International Cognitive Load Theory Conference, 2009.
  • 50
    Kuhn D, Katz J. Are self-explanations always beneficial? J Exp Child Psychol 2009, 103:386394.
  • 51
    Klahr D, Nigam M. The equivalence of learning paths in early science instruction. Psychol Sci 2004, 15:661667.
    Direct Link:
  • 52
    Matthews PG, Rittle-Johnson B. In pursuit of knowledge: Comparing self-explanations, concepts, and procedures as pedagogical tools. J Exp Child Psychol 2009, 104:121.
  • 53
    Klahr D. “To every thing there is a season, and a time to every purpose under the heavens”: what about direct instruction? In: Tobias S, Duffy TM, eds. Constructivist instruction: success or failure? New York: Taylor & Francis; 2009, 291310.