Flexibility is a cornerstone of adaptive behavior and is made possible by a family of processes referred to collectively as executive functions. Executive functions vary in efficacy from individual to individual and also across developmental time. Infants and young children, for example, have difficulty flexibly adapting their behavior, and often repeat actions that are no longer appropriate. And although older children do not typically make such striking errors, they have more difficulty exercising control than adolescents and adults. Such developmental variability parallels (at least in some respects) inter-individual variability in executive functions. Individuals who suffer damage or dysfunction in regions of the prefrontal cortex, for example, often experience difficulty in flexibly adapting their behavior to changes in context. As well, genetic differences between individuals are strongly associated with differences in executive control. Parallels between developmental and inter-individual variability suggest hypotheses about possible mechanisms underlying the development of executive functions but carry risks when interpreted improperly. Overcoming these pitfalls will require mechanistic characterizations of executive functioning that are more deeply rooted in developmental principles. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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