Smoothing effects of distributed wind turbines. Part 2. Coherence among power output of distant wind turbines
Article first published online: 24 MAY 2004
Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Special Issue: A Sampling of the 2003 EWEC in Madrid
Volume 7, Issue 2, pages 75–85, April/June 2004
How to Cite
Nanahara, T., Asari, M., Maejima, T., Sato, T., Yamaguchi, K. and Shibata, M. (2004), Smoothing effects of distributed wind turbines. Part 2. Coherence among power output of distant wind turbines. Wind Energ., 7: 75–85. doi: 10.1002/we.108
- Issue published online: 24 MAY 2004
- Article first published online: 24 MAY 2004
- New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)
- smoothing effect;
- wind power;
- power spectra;
- electric power system;
- system frequency
Recently there has been a marked increase in wind power generation. From a power system point of view, because a wind turbine is an intermittent generator with large output fluctuation, any increase in the number of wind turbines gives rise to concerns about the adverse effects of wind turbines on power quality. The smoothing effects of wind turbine output fluctuation are of great importance in assessing the impacts of a large number of wind turbines. With regard to impacts on power system frequency (generation–demand balance), smoothing effects on a power system-wide scale need to be examined in greater detail, because impacts of wind turbines on power system frequency are dominated by the total power output of wind turbines interconnected to the system. This article examines smoothing effects of wind power output on a power system-wide scale. First a summary of wind measurements, in which observations were made at 16 sites, is presented. Next, correlation coefficients of wind power output of distant wind turbines are analysed; considerable differences are observed in the correlation coefficients from day to day. Then a new indicator for assessing the smoothing effects—average coherence—is introduced to resolve difficulties of conventional indicators such as coherence. Average coherence is evaluated for the measured data; the results show that smoothing effects among wind farms distributed over some hundreds of kilometres may not be so significant for periods of more than about 100 min. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.