Grid impacts of wind power: a summary of recent studies in the United States
Article first published online: 24 MAY 2004
Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Special Issue: A Sampling of the 2003 EWEC in Madrid
Volume 7, Issue 2, pages 87–108, April/June 2004
How to Cite
Parsons, B., Milligan, M., Zavadil, B., Brooks, D., Kirby, B., Dragoon, K. and Caldwell, J. (2004), Grid impacts of wind power: a summary of recent studies in the United States. Wind Energ., 7: 87–108. doi: 10.1002/we.111
- Issue published online: 24 MAY 2004
- Article first published online: 24 MAY 2004
- wind power;
- NERC Standards;
Several detailed technical investigations of grid ancillary service impacts of wind power plants in the United States have recently been performed. These studies were applied to Xcel Energy (in Minnesota) and PacifiCorp and the Bonneville Power Administration (both in the northwestern United States). Although the approaches vary, three utility time frames appear to be most at issue: regulation, load following and unit commitment. This article describes and compares the analytic frameworks from recent analysis and discusses the implications and cost estimates of wind integration. The findings of these studies indicate that relatively large-scale wind generation will have an impact on power system operation and costs, but these impacts and costs are relatively low at penetration rates that are expected over the next several years. Published in 2004 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.