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Modeling and analysis of reactive power in grid-connected onshore and offshore DFIG-based wind farms



The analysis of reactive power for offshore and onshore wind farms connected to the grid through high-voltage alternating-current transmission systems is considered in this paper. The considered wind farm is made up with doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs). Modeling and improved analysis of the effective reactive power capability of DFIGs are provided. Particularly, the optimal power-tracking constraints and other operational variables are considered in the modeling and analysis of the DFIG reactive power capability. Reactive power requirements for both overhead and cable transmission systems are modeled and compared with each other as well as with the reactive power capability of the wind farms. Possibility of unity power factor operation suggested by the German Electricity Association (VDEW) is investigated for both types of installations. Aggregate reactive power demands on both wind farms are assessed such that the bus voltages remain within an acceptable bandwidth considering various operational limits. The reactive power settings for both types of wind farm installations are determined. In addition, the minimum capacity and reactive power settings for reactive power compensation required for cable-based installations are determined. Several numerical examples are given to illustrate the reactive power characteristics and capability of DFIGs, performance of transmission lines and reactive power analysis for DFIG-based grid-connected wind farms. A summary of the main outcomes of the work presented in this paper is provided in the conclusions section. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.