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Keywords:

  • wind turbine control;
  • power reserve;
  • wind turbine grid integration

ABSTRACT

The stability of the electrical grid depends on enough generators being able to provide appropriate responses to sudden losses in generation capacity, increases in power demand or similar events. Within the United States, wind turbines largely do not provide such generation support, which has been acceptable because the penetration of wind energy into the grid has been relatively low. However, frequency support capabilities may need to be built into future generations of wind turbines to enable high penetration levels over approximately 20%. In this paper, we describe control strategies that can enable power reserve by leaving some wind energy uncaptured. Our focus is on the control strategies used by an operating turbine, where the turbine is asked to track a power reference signal supplied by the wind farm operator. We compare the strategies in terms of their control performance as well as their effects on the turbine itself, such as the possibility for increased loads on turbine components. It is assumed that the wind farm operator has access to the necessary grid information to generate the power reference provided to the turbine, and we do not simulate the electrical interaction between the turbine and the utility grid. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.