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Keywords:

  • atmospheric stability;
  • boundary-layer model;
  • infinite wind farm;
  • Park wake model;
  • wake-decay coefficient;
  • wind-speed reduction

ABSTRACT

We extend the infinite wind-farm boundary-layer (IWFBL) model of Frandsen to take into account atmospheric static stability effects. This extended model is compared with the IWFBL model of Emeis and to the Park wake model used in Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP), which is computed for an infinite wind farm. The models show similar behavior for the wind-speed reduction when accounting for a number of surface roughness lengths, turbine to turbine separations and wind speeds under neutral conditions. For a wide range of atmospheric stability and surface roughness length values, the extended IWFBL model of Frandsen shows a much higher wind-speed reduction dependency on atmospheric stability than on roughness length (roughness has been generally thought to have a major effect on the wind-speed reduction). We further adjust the wake-decay coefficient of the Park wake model for an infinite wind farm to match the wind-speed reduction estimated by the extended IWFBL model of Frandsen for different roughness lengths, turbine to turbine separations and atmospheric stability conditions. It is found that the WAsP-recommended values for the wake-decay coefficient of the Park wake model are (i) larger than the adjusted values for a wide range of neutral to stable atmospheric stability conditions, a number of roughness lengths and turbine separations lower than ∼ 10 rotor diameters and (ii) too large compared with those obtained by a semiempirical formulation (relating the ratio of the friction to the hub-height free velocity) for all types of roughness and atmospheric stability conditions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.