SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Katic I, Højstrup J, Jensen NO. A simple model for cluster efficiency, Proceedings of the European Wind Energy Association Conference & Exhibition, 1986.
  • 2
    Mortensen NG, Heathfield DN, Myllerup L, Landberg L, Rathmann O. Getting started with WAsP 9. Risø-I-2571(EN), Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, http://www.wasp.dk/Download/DownloadFiles/General/GettingStartedwithWAsP9.pdf 2007.
  • 3
    Troen I, Petersen EL. European Wind Atlas. Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, 1989.
  • 4
    Peña A, Hahmann AN. Atmospheric stability and turbulent fluxes at Horns Rev—an intercomparison of sonic, bulk and WRF model data. Wind Energy 2012; 15: 717730.
  • 5
    Jensen LE. Array efficiency at Horns Rev and the effect of atmospheric stability, Proceedings of the European Wind Energy Association Conference & Exhibition, Milano, 2007.
  • 6
    Barthelmie R, Jensen LE. Evaluation of wind farm efficiency and wind turbine wakes at the Nysted offshore wind farm. Wind Energy 2010; 13: 573586.
  • 7
    Vincent CL, Pinson P, Giebel G. Wind fluctuations over the North Sea. International Journal of Climatology 2010. in press.
  • 8
    Sathe A, Gryning S-E, Peña A. Comparison of the atmospheric stability and wind profiles at two wind farm sites over a long marine fetch in the North Sea. Wind Energy 2011. in press.
  • 9
    Frandsen S. On the wind speed reduction in the center of large clusters of wind turbines. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 1992; 39: 251265.
  • 10
    Peña A, Gryning S-E, Hasager CB. Measurements and modelling of the wind speed profile in the marine atmospheric boundary layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 2008; 129: 479495.
  • 11
    Vermeer LJ, Sørensen JN, Crespo A. Wind turbine wake aerodynamics. Progress in Aerospace Sciences 2003; 39: 467510.
  • 12
    Lu H, Porté-Agel F. Large-eddy simulation of a very large wind farm in a stable atmospheric boundary layer. Physics of Fluids 2011; 23: 065101 (119).
  • 13
    Meyers J, Meneveau C. Optimal turbine spacing in fully developed wind farm boundary layers. Wind Energy 2011. in press.
  • 14
    Calaf M, Meneveau C, Meyers J. Large eddy simulation study of fully developed wind-turbine array boundary layers. Physics of Fluids 2010; 22: 015110 (116).
  • 15
    Emeis S, Frandsen S. Reduction of horizontal wind speed in a boundary layer with obstacles. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 1993; 64: 297305.
  • 16
    Gaumond M, Rethoré P-E, Ott S, Peña A, Bechmann A, Hansen KS. Evaluation of the wind direction uncertainty and its impact on wake modelling at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Wind Energy 2013. in press.
  • 17
    Jensen NO. Change of surface roughness and the planetary boundary layer. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 1978; 104: 351356.
  • 18
    Rethoré P-E. Wind turbine wake in atmospheric turbulence. Technical Report Risoe-PhD-53(EN), Risø DTU, Roskilde, 2009.
  • 19
    Zilitinkevich SS. Resistance laws and prediction equations for the depth of the planetary boundary layer. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 1975; 32: 741752.
  • 20
    Emeis S. A simple analytical wind park model considering atmospheric stability. Wind Energy 2010; 13: 459469.
  • 21
    Monin AS, Obukhov AM. Osnovnye zakonomernosti turbulentnogo peremeshivanija v prizemnom sloe atmosfery (basic laws of turbulent mixing in the atmosphere near the ground). Trudy Geofizicheskogo Instituta AN SSSR 1954; 24(151): 163187.
  • 22
    Peña A, Gryning S-E, Hasager CB. Comparing mixing-length models of the diabatic wind profile over homogeneous terrain. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 2010; 100: 325335.
  • 23
    Peña A, Gryning S-E, Mann J. On the length-scale of the wind profile. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 2010; 136: 21192131.
  • 24
    Jensen NO, Petersen EL, Troen I. Extrapolation of mean wind statistics with special regard to wind energy applications. Technical Report WCP–86, WMO/TF–No. 15, World Meteorological Organization, 1984.
  • 25
    Jensen NO. A note on wind generator interaction. Technical Report Risoe-M-2411(EN), Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, 1983.
  • 26
    Rathmann OS, Frandsen S, Nielsen M. Wake decay constant for the infinite wind turbine array, Proceedings of the European Wind Energy Association Conference & Exhibition, Warsaw, 2010.
  • 27
    Gryning S-E, Batchvarova E, Brümmer B, Jørgensen H, Larsen S. On the extension of the wind profile over homogeneous terrain beyond the surface layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 2007; 124: 251268.
  • 28
    Frandsen ST. Turbulence and turbulence-generated structural loading in wind turbine clusters. Technical Report Risoe-R-1188(EN), Risø DTU, Roskilde, 2007.
  • 29
    Miyake M. Transformation of the atmospheric boundary layer over inhomogeneous surfaces. Technical Report Unpublished MSc. Thesis, Science Report 5R-6, University of Washington, Seattle, 1965.
  • 30
    Floors R, Gryning S-E, Peña A, Batchvarova E. Analysis of diabatic flow modification in the internal boundary layer. Meteorologische Zeitschrift 2011; 20: 649659.
  • 31
    Frandsen S, Barthelmie R, Pryor S, Rathmann O, Larsen S, Højstrup J, Thøgersen M. Analytical modelling of wind speed deficit in large offshore wind farms. Wind Energy 2006; 9: 3953.
  • 32
    Zhang W, Markfort CD, Porté-Agel F. Experimental study of the impact of large-scale wind farms on land-atmosphere exchanges. Environmental Research Letters 2013; 8: 015002 (8 pp).
  • 33
    Calaf M, Parlange MB, Meneveau C. Large eddy simulation study of scalar transport in fully developed wind-turbine array boundary layers. Physics of Fluids 2010; 23: 126603 (116).
  • 34
    Long RR, Guffey LJ. Drag and heat transfer relations for the planetary boundary layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 1977; 11: 363373.
  • 35
    Clarke RH, Hess GD. Geostrophic departure and the functions a and b of rossby-number similarity theory. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 1974; 7: 267287.