• rotor aerodynamics;
  • BEM theory;
  • induction;
  • swirl;
  • wake expansion;
  • actuator disc model;
  • wind turbine;
  • energy conversion


A comprehensive investigation of the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) model using detailed numerical simulations with an axis symmetric actuator disc (AD) model has been carried out. The present implementation of the BEM model is in a version where exactly the same input in the form of non-dimensional axial and tangential load coefficients can be used for the BEM model as for the numerical AD model. At a rotor disc loading corresponding to maximum power coefficient, we found close correlation between the AD and BEM model as concerns the integral value of the power coefficient. However, locally along the blade radius, we found considerable deviations with the general tendency, that the BEM model underestimates the power coefficient on the inboard part of the rotor and overestimates the coefficient on the outboard part. A closer investigation of the deviations showed that underestimation of the power coefficient on the inboard part could be ascribed to the pressure variation in the rotating wake not taken into account in the BEM model. We further found that the overestimation of the power coefficient on the outboard part of the rotor is due to the expansion of the flow causing a non-uniform induction although the loading is uniform. Based on the findings we derived two small engineering sub-models to be included in the BEM model to account for the physical mechanisms causing the deviations. Finally, the influence of using the corrected BEM model, BEMcor on two rotor designs is presented. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.