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Computational fluid dynamics simulation of the aerodynamics of a high solidity, small-scale vertical axis wind turbine


K. McLaren, Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L7, Canada.



A computational fluid dynamics simulation was performed for a small-scale, high solidity (σ = 0.48) H-type Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine. Two-dimensional unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations were solved for the turbine numerical model, which has a large stationary domain and smaller rotating subdomain connected by a sliding mesh interface. The simulation results were first validated against steady-state airfoil data. The model was then used to solve for three rotating blades with constant ambient flow velocity (Re = 360,000) over numerous blade speed ratios. The high solidity and the associated low blade speed ratio and rotational speed of the turbine result in complex flow–blade interaction mechanisms. These include dynamic stall resulting in vortex shedding, vortex impingement on the source blade and significant flow momentum extraction causing reduced power production from the downstream blade pass. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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