A model of ice throw trajectories from wind turbines
Article first published online: 17 NOV 2011
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Volume 15, Issue 7, pages 889–901, October 2012
How to Cite
Biswas, S., Taylor, P. and Salmon, J. (2012), A model of ice throw trajectories from wind turbines. Wind Energ., 15: 889–901. doi: 10.1002/we.519
- Issue published online: 10 OCT 2012
- Article first published online: 17 NOV 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 20 AUG 2011
- Manuscript Revised: 18 AUG 2011
- Manuscript Received: 14 MAR 2011
- ice throw;
- trajectory model;
- lift effects
A model of the trajectories of ice fragments thrown from a rotating wind turbine blade is used to estimate the ground impact locations that could occur under different scenarios. Wind speed, ejection position on the blade and turbine rotation rate all play a role in determining the impact point, as well as mass, density and drag coefficient of the ice fragment. For ‘compact’ ice fragments, the trajectory depends on the combination CDA∕M where CD is the drag coefficient, A is the frontal area and M the mass of the ice fragment. Sensitivity tests show that ice fragments can travel further laterally for low CD and further downwind for high CD. For plate-like fragments, aerodynamic lift can increase the distance travelled if the plate maintains an orientation to maximize lift. Although this may be a relatively rare event, we provide an example where a 1 kg plate-like fragment could travel up to 350 m from the base of the turbine. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.