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This paper reviews over 100 articles related to the development of nanotubes, nanofibers, and nanowires as catalyst supports for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Several different novel methods for support and catalyst synthesis are discussed in detail. The fabrication processes for these nanomaterial-supported platinum (Pt) catalysts, catalyst layers, and membrane electrode assemblies are also reviewed. On the basis of the literature review, several research directions for catalyst cost reduction, catalytic activity, and durability enhancement are proposed in this paper.