This review provides an overview of intermediate temperature proton-conducting membrane electrolyte materials for fuel cells. Such fuel cells operate in the approximate temperature range of 150–300°C and can capitalize on a number of technological reasons for operating H2/air. These reasons include enhancement of electrochemical kinetics, simplified water management, efficient cooling, and useful waste heat recovery. Importantly lower quality, for example, reformed hydrogen, containing relatively large amounts of carbon dioxide, may be used as the fuel. The materials, which have been the focus of intermediate temperature proton-conducting fuel cells, include heteropolyacids, metal pyrophosphates, solid acids, and acid-imbibed high-temperature polymers such as polybenzimidazole. WIREs Energy Environ 2014, 3:24–41. doi: 10.1002/wene.64
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