The authors have declared no conflicts of interest in relation to this article.
An overview of the state of the art technologies for multi-MW scale offshore wind turbines and beyond
Article first published online: 2 MAY 2013
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment
Volume 3, Issue 2, pages 111–121, March/April 2014
How to Cite
Natarajan, A. (2014), An overview of the state of the art technologies for multi-MW scale offshore wind turbines and beyond. WIREs Energy Environ., 3: 111–121. doi: 10.1002/wene.80
- Issue published online: 11 FEB 2014
- Article first published online: 2 MAY 2013
An overview of technological trends in the design of multi-mega Watt wind turbines focused on the offshore sector is presented. The state of the art technologies for wind turbine design are multidisciplinary ranging from blade aeroelasticity, power transmission to the generator, to advanced control systems that ensure performance and the design of offshore support structures to minimize cost of energy. Light weight carbon fiber blades, aeroelastic tailoring using bend–twist coupling are discussed in coordination with a multitude of aerodynamic technologies for optimal power capture such as high-lift airfoils, flaps, and flat-back airfoil designs. The pitch control of the turbine responsible for rotating the blades about its axis to reduce loads is the primary load reducing mechanism of the wind turbine, for which technologies that enable wind sensing such as forward looking LIDARs and redundancy mechanisms such as individual blade pitch control offer promising advances. The lack of reliability of the gearbox has resulted in drive train technologies to move toward direct drives, whose benefits and liabilities are assessed in combination with generator concepts. The support structures are discussed within an offshore framework for shallow, moderately deep, and deep waters. Fixed substructures such as monopiles, tripods, jackets, as well as floaters such as spar buoys and tension leg platforms are brought forth. The advances in these different component technologies that enable the wind turbine system to be reliable and cost effective are described as a precursor to further in-depth reviews.