Spatially resolved diagnostic methods for polymer electrolyte fuel cells: a review


  • The author has declared no conflicts of interest in relation to this article.


This review discusses the range of diagnostic techniques reported in the literature for spatially resolved studies of operating fuel cells. In situ diagnostic techniques continue to reveal more about the working of fuel cells and in so doing allow for improved cell hardware design, materials selection, and choice of operating conditions to realize advanced electrochemical performance and longevity. These techniques also allow us to scrutinize the validity of conventional bulk electrical measurements and develop detailed models of fuel cell operation.