• artificial intelligence;
  • intelligent agent;
  • knowledge representation;
  • problem solving;
  • learning;
  • natural language processing;
  • applications of artificial intelligence


Artificial intelligence (AI) is the Science and Engineering domain concerned with the theory and practice of developing systems that exhibit the characteristics we associate with intelligence in human behavior. Starting with a brief history of artificial intelligence, this article presents a general overview of this broad interdisciplinary field, organized around the main modules of the notional architecture of an intelligent agent (knowledge representation; problem solving and planning; knowledge acquisition and learning; natural language, speech, and vision; action processing and robotics) which highlights both the main areas of artificial intelligence research, development and application, and also their integration. WIREs Comput Stat 2012, 4:168–180. doi: 10.1002/wics.200