• 1
    Nowotny H, Scotta P, Gibbons M. Re-Thinking Science: Knowledge and the Public in an Age of Uncertainty. Cambridge: Polity Press; 2001.
  • 2
    Pereira G, Funtowicz S. Knowledge representation and mediation for transdisciplinary frameworks to inform debates, dialogues and deliberation. Int J Transdiscip Res 2006, 1:3450.
  • 3
    Shirky C. Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations. New York: Penguin; 2008.
  • 4
    Cohen D. From Babel to knowledge: data mining large digital collections. D-Lib Mag 2006. doi:10.1045/march2006-cohen.
  • 5
    Drezner DW, Farrell H. Blogs, politics and power. Public Choice 2008, 134:113.
  • 6
    Lawrence E, Sides J, Farrell H. Self-segregation or deliberation? Blog readership, participation, and polarization in American politics. Perspect Polit 2010, 8:141157.
  • 7
    Sunstein CR. Neither Hayek nor Habermas. Public Choice 2008, 134:8795.
  • 8
  • 9
    [Online]. Available from: (Accessed 13 November 2013).
  • 10
    Bansal N, Koudas N. Searching the blogosphere. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Web and Databases, Beijing, China, June 2007.
  • 11
    Chi Y, Zhu S, Song X, Tatemura J, Tseng BL. Structural and temporal analysis of the blogosphere through community factorization. Proceedings of the 13th ACM International Conference Knowledge Discovery & Data Mining, San Jose, August 2007, 163172.
  • 12
    Hotho A, Nurnberger A. A brief survey of text mining. LDV Forum 2005, 20:1962.
  • 13
    Solka JL. Text data mining: theory and methods. Stat Surv 2008, 2:94112.
  • 14
    BioWisdom. OmniViz for document analysis, 2007. [Online]. Available from: (Accessed 13 November 2013).
  • 15
    White MD. RefViz 2 (review). Libr Acad 2008, 8:343344.
  • 16
    Bullinaria JA, Levy JP. Extracting semantic representations from word co-occurrence statistics: a computational study. Behav Res Methods 2007, 39:510526.
  • 17
    Kohonen T. Emergence of invariant-feature detectors in the adaptive-subspace self-organizing map. Biol Cybern 1996, 75:281291.
  • 18
    Kohonen T. The self-organizing map. Proc IEEE 1990, 78:14641480.
  • 19
    Halevy AY. Structures, semantics and statistics. Keynote address at Proceedings of the 30th VLDB Conference, Toronto, Canada, August 2004.
  • 20
    Miller GA, Beckwith R, Fellbaum C, Gross D, Miller KJ. Introduction to WordNet: an on-line lexical database. Int J Lexicogr 1990, 3:235244.
  • 21
    Brill E. Unsupervised learning of disambiguation rules for part of speech tagging. Proceedings of the 3rd ACL Workshop on Very Large Corpora, Cambridge, MA 1995.
  • 22
    Deerwester SC, Dumais ST, Landauer TK, Furnasg GW, Harshman RA. Indexing by latent semantic analysis. J Am Soc Info Sci 1990, 41:391407.
  • 23
    Hofmann T. Probabilistic latent semantic indexing. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval (SIGIR-99), Berkeley, CA, August 1999.
  • 24
    Yin H. Nonlinear dimensionality reduction and data visualization: a review. Int J Autom Comput 2007, 4:294303.
  • 25
    Linquist E. Surveying the world of visualization. H.C. Coombs Policy Forum; 2011.
  • 26
    Honkela T. Learning to understand—general aspects of using self-organizing maps in natural language processing. Proceedings of AIP Conference on Computing Anticipatory Systems (CASYS'97), Liege, Belgium, August 1997.
  • 27
    Venna J, Kaski S. Neighbourhood preservation in nonlinear projection methods: an experimental study. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN 2001), Vienna, Austria, August 2001; 485–491.
  • 28
    Merkl D. Text classification with self-organizing maps: some lessons learned. Neurocomputing 1998, 21:6177.
  • 29
    Kaski S, Honkela T, Lagus K, Kohonen T. WebSOM—self-organizing maps of document collections. Neurocomputing 1998, 21:101117.
  • 30
    Lagus K. Text retrieval using self-organized document maps. Technical Report A61. Helsinki University of Technology, Laboratory of Computer and Information Science; 2000.
  • 31
    Honkela T. Comparisons of self-organized word category maps. Workshop on Self-Organizing Maps (WSOM'97), Espoo, Finland, June 1997; 298–303.
  • 32
    Kohonen T, Kaski S, Lagus K, Salojarvi J, Honkela J, Paatero V, Saarela A. Self-organization of a massive document collection. IEEE Trans Neural Netw 2000, 11:574585.
  • 33
    Redington M, Chate N, Huang C, Chang L, Chen K. The universality of simple distributional methods: identifying syntactic categories in Mandarin Chinese. Proceedings of the International Conference on Cognitive Science and Natural Language Processing, Dublin, July 1995.
  • 34
    Church KW, Gale WA. Inverse document frequency (IDF): a measure of deviations from Poisson. Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Very Large Corpora. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; 1995, 121–130.
  • 35
    Salton G, Buckley C. Term-weighting approaches in automatic text retrieval. Inf Process Manag 1988, 24:513523.
  • 36
    Lavelli A, Sebastiani F, Zanoli R. Distributional term representations: an experimental comparison. Proceedings of the 13th ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, Washington, DC, November 2004, 615–624.
  • 37
    Li D, Kwong CO, Lee DL. Unified linear subspace approach to semantic analysis. J Am Soc Info Sci 2010, 61:175189.
  • 38
    Lee SK, Kim B, Huh M, Park J, Kang S, Cho S, Lee D. Knowledge discovery in inspection reports of marine structures. Expert Systems with Applications. 2014, 41:11531167.
  • 39
    Helbich M, Haganauer J, Leitner M, Edwards M. Exploration of unstructured narrative crime reports: an unsupervised neural network and point pattern analysis approach. Cartogr Geogr Inf Sci 2013, 40:326336.
  • 40
    Ding Y, Fu X. The research of text mining based on self-organizing maps. Proc Eng 2012, 29:537541.
  • 41
    Poelmans J, Van Hulle MM, Viaene S, Elzinga P, Dedene G. Text mining with emergent self organizing maps and multi-dimensional scaling: a comparative study on domestic violence. Appl Soft Comput 2011, 11:38703876.
  • 42
    Yang HC. Discovering secrets from texts: a self-organizing map perspective. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Information Technology in Medicine and Education (ITME 2012), Hokkaido, Japan, August 2012.
  • 43
    Janasik N, Honkela T, Bruun H. Text mining in qualitative research application of an unsupervised learning method. Organ Res Methods 2009, 12:436460.
  • 44
    Lewis DD. Naive (Bayes) at forty: the independence assumption in information retrieval. Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Machine Learning (ECML-98). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 1398. Springer: Chemnitz, Germany; 1998, 4–15.
  • 45
    Firth JR. A synopsis of linguistic theory 1930–1955. In: Palmer F, ed. Selected papers of J. R. Firth. Harlow, UK: Longman; 1968.
  • 46
    Dagan I. Contextual word similarity. In: Dale R, Moisl H, Somers H, eds. Handbook of Natural Language Processing. New York: Marcel Dekker; 2000, 459476.
  • 47
    Golub GH, Kahan W. Calculating the singular values and pseudo-inverse of a matrix. J SIAM B Numer Anal 1965, 2:205224.
  • 48
    Fierro RD, Jiang EP. Lanczos and the Riemannian SVD in information retrieval applications. Numer Lin Alg Appl 2004, 12:355372.
  • 49
    Jaber T, Amira A, Milligan P. Textual noise analysis and removal for effective search engines. Proceedings of the 2nd European Workshop on Visual Information Processing (EUVIP 2010), Paris, France, July 2010, 129–133.
  • 50
    Kaski S. Dimensionality reduction by random mapping: fast similarity computation for clustering. Proceedings of the 10th IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN'98), Anchorage, AK, May 1998, 413–418.
  • 51
    Ritter H, Kohonen T. Self-organizing semantic maps. Biol Cybern 1989, 61:241254.
  • 52
    Vesanto J, Himberg H, Alhoniemi E, Parhankangas J. SOM Toolbox for MatLab 5. Technical Report A57. Helsinki University of Technology, Laboratory of Computer and Information Science; 2000.
  • 53
    Kohonen T. Self-organized formation of topologically correct feature maps. Biol Cybern 1982, 43:5969.
  • 54
    [Online]. Available from: (Accessed 13 November 2013).
  • 55
    [Online]. Available from: (Accessed 13 November 2013).
  • 56
    Cohen D. A power primer. Psychol Bull 1992, 112:155159.
  • 57
    Davies DL, Bouldin DW. A cluster separation measure. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 1979, 1:224227.
  • 58
    Vesanto J, Alhoniemi E. Clustering of the self-organizing map. IEEE Trans Neural Netw 2000, 11:586600.
  • 59
    Baylis WE, Jones G. The Pauli-algebra approach to special relativity. J Phys A Math Gen 1989, 22:116.
  • 60
    Walker MJ. Quaternions as 4-vectors. Am J Phys 1956, 24:515522.
  • 61
    Hestenes D. Zitterbewegung modeling. Found Phys 1993, 23:365387.
  • 62
    Krekora P, Su Q, Grobe R. Relativistic electron localization and the lack of zitterbewegung. Phys Rev Lett 2004, 93:043004.
  • 63
    Preskill J. Quantum computing: pro and con. Proc Roy Soc A 1998, 454:469486.
  • 64
    Knill E. Quantum computing with realistically noisy devices. Nature 2005, 434:3944.
  • 65
    Daniilidis K, & Bayro-Corrochano E. The dual quaternion approach to hand-eye calibration. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR'96), vol. 1, Vienna, Austria, September 1996, 318–322
  • 66
    Yun, X, Bachmann, E R, Moore, H, & Calusdian, J. Self-contained position tracking of human movement using small inertial/magnetic sensor modules. Proceedings of 2007 IEEE International Conference on Robotics & Automation (ICRA 2007), Rome, Italy, April 2007, 2526–2533
  • 67
    Masry E. Poisson sampling and spectral estimation of continuous-time processes. IEEE Trans Info Theor 1978, 24:173183.
  • 68
    Leneman O, Lewis J. Random sampling of random processes: mean-square comparison of various interpolators. IEEE Trans Autom Control 1966, 11:396403.
  • 69
    Rishel T, Perkins LA, Yenduri S, Zand F. Determining the context of text using augmented latent semantic indexing. J Am Soc Info Sci 2007, S8:21972204.
  • 70
    Singh VK, Mahata D, Adhikari R. Mining the blogosphere from a socio-political perspective. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Information Systems & Industrial Management Applications (CISIM 2010), Krakow, Poland, October 2010, 265–370.
  • 71
    Tsur O, Davidov D, Rappoport A. A great catchy name: semi-supervised recognition of sarcastic sentences in online product reviews. Proceedings of the 4th Intrenational AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media (ICWSM 2010), Washington, DC, May 2010.
  • 72
    Honkela T, Hyvarinen A, Vayrynen JJ. WordICA—emergence of linguistic representations for words by independent component analysis. Nat Lang Eng 2010, 16:277308.
  • 73
    [Online]. Available from: (Accessed 13 November 2013).