Current trends in nanobiosensor technology

Authors

  • Leon M. Bellan,

    Corresponding author
    1. David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA
    • David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA

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  • Diana Wu,

    1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA
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  • Robert S. Langer

    1. David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA
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Abstract

The development of tools and processes used to fabricate, measure, and image nanoscale objects has lead to a wide range of work devoted to producing sensors that interact with extremely small numbers (or an extremely small concentration) of analyte molecules. These advances are particularly exciting in the context of biosensing, where the demands for low concentration detection and high specificity are great. Nanoscale biosensors, or nanobiosensors, provide researchers with an unprecedented level of sensitivity, often to the single molecule level. The use of biomolecule-functionalized surfaces can dramatically boost the specificity of the detection system, but can also yield reproducibility problems and increased complexity. Several nanobiosensor architectures based on mechanical devices, optical resonators, functionalized nanoparticles, nanowires, nanotubes, and nanofibers have been demonstrated in the lab. As nanobiosensor technology becomes more refined and reliable, it is likely it will eventually make its way from the lab to the clinic, where future lab-on-a-chip devices incorporating an array of nanobiosensors could be used for rapid screening of a wide variety of analytes at low cost using small samples of patient material. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2011 3 229–246 DOI: 10.1002/wnan.136

This article is categorized under:

  • Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing
  • Diagnostic Tools > Diagnostic Nanodevices
  • Diagnostic Tools > In Vitro Nanoparticle-Based Sensing

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