Nanoelectrodes are electrodes with a critical dimension in the range of one to hundreds of nanometers and include individual electrodes, nanoelectrode ensembles, and arrays. Metallic nanowires, carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles, and metal oxide nanowires have been employed to fabricate nanoelectrodes and platforms. In this review, applications of single electrodes, nanoelectrode arrays, and ensembles are briefly evaluated, with emphasis on biological analysis. Nanoelectrodes offer great advantages in numerous areas of biological investigations, particularly in single cells studies, fabrication of microchips, design of coordinated biosensors, and in addressable patterned electrodes. Consequently, nanoelectrodes have immense potential in the development of efficient, specific, sensitive, and intelligent sensors. In conjunction with the rapidly evolving, cost-effective fabrication and materials development approaches, these sensors can be used as direct, point-of-care clinical devices, enabling more personalized medical care. The development and application of nanodevices in biology and medicine will have enormous implications for society and human health. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2010 2 176–188
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