Get access

Nanoelectrodes for biological measurements

Authors

  • Joanne I. Yeh,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Structural Biology and Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh Medical School, BST3 1040, 3501 5th Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    • Department of Structural Biology and Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh Medical School, BST3 1040, 3501 5th Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Haibin Shi

    1. Department of Structural Biology, University of Pittsburgh Medical School, BST3 1040, 3501 5th Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

Nanoelectrodes are electrodes with a critical dimension in the range of one to hundreds of nanometers and include individual electrodes, nanoelectrode ensembles, and arrays. Metallic nanowires, carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles, and metal oxide nanowires have been employed to fabricate nanoelectrodes and platforms. In this review, applications of single electrodes, nanoelectrode arrays, and ensembles are briefly evaluated, with emphasis on biological analysis. Nanoelectrodes offer great advantages in numerous areas of biological investigations, particularly in single cells studies, fabrication of microchips, design of coordinated biosensors, and in addressable patterned electrodes. Consequently, nanoelectrodes have immense potential in the development of efficient, specific, sensitive, and intelligent sensors. In conjunction with the rapidly evolving, cost-effective fabrication and materials development approaches, these sensors can be used as direct, point-of-care clinical devices, enabling more personalized medical care. The development and application of nanodevices in biology and medicine will have enormous implications for society and human health. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2010 2 176–188

For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

Ancillary