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Nanostructured bladder tissue replacements

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Abstract

The interaction between cells or tissues and natural or synthetic materials which mimic the natural biological environment has been a matter of great interest in tissue engineering. In particular, surface properties of biomaterials (regardless of whether they are natural or synthetic) have been optimized using nanotechnology to improve interactions with cells for regenerative medicine applications. Specifically, in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated greater bladder tissue growth on polymeric surfaces with nanoscale to submicron surface features. Improved bladder cell responses on nanostructured polymers have been correlated to unique nanomaterial surface features leading to greater surface energy which influences initial protein interactions. Moreover, coupled with the observed greater in vitro and in vivo bladder cell adhesion as well as proliferation on nanostructured compared to conventional synthetic polymers, decreased calcium stone formation has also been measured. In this article, the importance of nanostructured biomaterial surface features for bladder tissue replacements are reviewed with thoughts on future directions for this emerging field. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2011 3 134–145 DOI: 10.1002/wnan.89

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