High-resolution distributed temperature sensing to detect seasonal groundwater discharge into Lake Væng, Denmark

Authors

  • E. Sebok,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    • Corresponding author: E. Sebok, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen, Denmark. (Es@geo.ku.dk)

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  • C. Duque,

    1. Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    2. Department of Geodynamics, University of Granada, Granada, Spain
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  • J. Kazmierczak,

    1. Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
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  • P. Engesgaard,

    1. Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
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  • B. Nilsson,

    1. Department of Hydrology, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen, Denmark
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  • S. Karan,

    1. Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
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  • M. Frandsen

    1. Department of Hydrology, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen, Denmark
    2. Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
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Abstract

[1] Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) was used to map spatial and temporal changes in temperature on a 25 m by 6 m lakebed area in the winter (February), spring (May), and summer (August) of 2012. A constant and high discharge of groundwater with the average temperature of around 8°C to the lake will result in either lower (summer) or higher (winter) daily temperatures and reduce temperature variability at the sediment-water interface (SWI). DTS data were used as a proxy for groundwater discharge using three metrics; daily minimum temperature, diel amplitude, and daily standard deviation of temperature. During the seasons, the daily minimum temperatures at the SWI indicate a discharge zone 4–6 m offshore. From winter to summer, the extent of this zone changes and the SWI temperatures also show a shift of discharge locations toward the shore. Fluxes estimated on the basis of vertical temperature profiles from the top 50 cm of the lakebed and seepage meters in August compare well with the locations of the high-discharge zones detected by the DTS in the same period, giving confidence in the ability of the method to map both the areas and spatial variability of groundwater discharge to lakes. Compared to February, the DTS was able to detect new relatively cold temperature zones at the SWI in May and August indicating that groundwater discharge to the lake changes over time and that DTS can be used to monitor temporal variability in areas of discharge.

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