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Water Resources Research

Onset of deep drainage and salt mobilization following forest clearing and cultivation in the Chaco plains (Argentina)

Authors

  • M. L. Amdan,

    Corresponding author
    1. Facultad de Agronomía, Departamento de Métodos Cuantitativos y Sistemas de Información, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    • Corresponding author: M. L. Amdan, Facultad de Agronomía, Departamento de Métodos Cuantitativos y Sistemas de Información, University of Buenos Aires, Av. San Martín 4453, C1417DSE Buenos Aires, Argentina. (lauraamdan@gmail.com)

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  • R. Aragón,

    1. Instituto de Ecologia Regional (IER), Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo, University of Tucumán, Tucumán, Argentina
    2. Grupo de Estudios Ambientales, IMASL, Universidad Nacional de San Luis and CONICET, San Luis, Argentina
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  • E. G. Jobbágy,

    1. Grupo de Estudios Ambientales, IMASL, Universidad Nacional de San Luis and CONICET, San Luis, Argentina
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  • J. N. Volante,

    1. Laboratorio de Teledetección y SIG, INTA Salta, Salta, Argentina
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  • J. M. Paruelo

    1. Facultad de Agronomía, Departamento de Métodos Cuantitativos y Sistemas de Información, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    2. Laboratorio de Análisis Regional y Teledetección and IFEVA, University of Buenos Aires and CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina
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Abstract

[1] Semiarid sedimentary plains occupied by dry forest ecosystems often display low groundwater recharge rates and accumulation of salts in the soil profile. The transformation of these natural systems to rain-fed agriculture has led to raising water tables and a slow, but steady, process of groundwater and soil salinization in vast areas of Australia. In the semiarid plains of Chaco (central South America), unprecedented deforestation rates are taken place. Based on deep soil sampling (0–6 m) in seven paired stands under natural dry forest, rain-fed agriculture and pasture, with different age of clearance (>30 years, 20 and 3 years) in Salta, Argentina, we provide evidence of groundwater recharge increase and onset of salt mobilization in areas where forests were replaced by annual croplands. Soils with higher water and lower chloride content are evidence of deep percolation and salt leaching. In Salta, stands subject to 30 years of rain-fed cultivation had profiles with 30–46% higher moisture content and 94% lower chloride stocks compared to dry forest (0.05 ± 0.04 kg/m2 versus 0.77 ± 0.4 kg/m2). Estimates of groundwater recharge based on the displacement of chloride peaks suggested values of 27–87 mm yr−1 for agricultural soybean stands, and 10.4 mm yr−1 for pastures. While hydrological shifts in the regional groundwater system are poorly monitored and understood, our findings show that it is potentially sensitive to land use changes and to salinization processes.

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