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Water Resources Research

Cover image for Vol. 48 Issue 9

September 2012

Volume 48, Issue 9

  1. Correction

    1. Top of page
    2. Correction
    3. Data and Analysis Notes
    4. Regular Article
    5. Technical Note
    1. You have free access to this content
      Correction to “Dominant controls on pesticide transport from tile to catchment scale: Lessons from a minimalist model”

      S. Zanardo, N. B. Basu, G. Botter, A. Rinaldo and P. S. C. Rao

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR012775

      This article corrects:
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      Correction to “Relative dominance of hydrologic versus biogeochemical factors on solute export across impact gradients”

      S. E. Thompson, N. B. Basu, J. Lascurain Jr., A. Aubeneau and P. S. C. Rao

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR012754

      This article corrects:
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  2. Data and Analysis Notes

    1. Top of page
    2. Correction
    3. Data and Analysis Notes
    4. Regular Article
    5. Technical Note
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      A new global river network database for macroscale hydrologic modeling

      Huan Wu, John S. Kimball, Hongyi Li, Maoyi Huang, L. Ruby Leung and Robert F. Adler

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR012313

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      Key Points

      • The accuracy of DRT results is constrained by the accuracy of baseline inputs
      • HydroSHEDS provides a superior quality of baseline inputs to HYDRO1k for DRT
      • New multiscale river networks are derived using DRT and improved baseline inputs
  3. Regular Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Correction
    3. Data and Analysis Notes
    4. Regular Article
    5. Technical Note
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      A blueprint for process-based modeling of uncertain hydrological systems

      Alberto Montanari and Demetris Koutsoyiannis

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011412

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      Key Points

      • Unified approach to hydrological modeling and uncertainty assessment
      • Uncertainty assessment for models of any complexity
      • Stochastic process-based modelling of uncertain systems
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      Distributed assimilation of satellite-based snow extent for improving simulated streamflow in mountainous, dense forests: An example over the DMIP2 western basins

      Soni Yatheendradas, Christa D. Peters Lidard, Victor Koren, Brian A. Cosgrove, Luis G. G. De Goncalves, Michael Smith, Jim Geiger, Zhengtao Cui, Jordan Borak, Sujay V. Kumar, David L. Toll, George Riggs and Naoki Mizukami

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011347

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      Key Points

      • Unaccounted below-canopy snow extent important
      • Below-canopy snow accounting improves streamflow simulations
      • Models should incorporate detailed snow and vegetation representations
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      Size distributions of pore water and entrapped air during drying-infiltration processes of sandstone characterized by water-expulsion porosimetry

      Naoki Nishiyama, Tadashi Yokoyama and Shingo Takeuchi

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011782

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      Key Points

      • We show a method to evaluate how air is entrapped as a function of pore size
      • Pores of specific size trap much air, thereby hydraulic conductivity drops
      • We compare the entrapped air size distributions obtained by experiment and model
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      Thickness measurements of nanoscale brine films on silica surfaces under geologic CO2sequestration conditions using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence

      Tae Wook Kim, Tetsu K. Tokunaga, Derek B. Shuman, Stephen R. Sutton, Matt Newville and Antonio Lanzirotti

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR012200

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      Key Points

      • The experimental approach to measuring the brine film with SXRF method
      • The measurement of brine film thickness for both smooth and rough surface
      • The comparison between experimental results and DLVO theory for brine film
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      Cooperative institutions for sustainable common pool resource management: Application to groundwater

      Kaveh Madani and Ariel Dinar

      Article first published online: 27 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR010849

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      Key Points

      • Suggesting various cooperating institutions for managing CPRs
      • Application of cooperative institutions for sustainable CPR management
      • Evaluating the effects of cooperative institutions on CPRs and their users
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      A new model for the spectral induced polarization signature of bacterial growth in porous media

      A. Revil, E. Atekwana, C. Zhang, A. Jardani and S. Smith

      Article first published online: 27 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR011965

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      Key Points

      • The polarization of bacteria has a distinctive macroscopic electrical signature
      • Induced polarization can be used to assess Monod kinetics parameters
      • This assessment is non-intrusive
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      Understanding the impact of dam-triggered land use/land cover change on the modification of extreme precipitation

      Abel T. Woldemichael, Faisal Hossain, Roger Pielke Sr. and Adriana Beltrán-Przekurat

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011684

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      Key Points

      • Dam-triggered LULC has detectable impact on precipitation
      • Irrigation has most impact on extreme precipitation
      • Redistribution of storm pattern requires a broader view for flood modeling
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      Frequency–wavenumber velocity spectra, Taylor's hypothesis, and length scales in a natural gravel bed river

      Jamie MacMahan, Ad Reniers, Will Ashley and Ed Thornton

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011709

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      Key Points

      • New instrumentation and data analysis provide new thoughts on river structures
      • Coherent motions are longer than previously described
      • The coherent motions are evolving while propagating downstream
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      Spatial regression models for extreme precipitation in Belgium

      H. Van de Vyver

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011707

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      Key Points

      • Extreme precipitation depths for durations from 10 min to 30 days
      • Spatial GEV models including geographical/climatological covariates
      • Spatial models fitted to multi-site data
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      Soil heterogeneity in Mojave Desert shrublands: Biotic and abiotic processes

      Todd G. Caldwell, Michael H. Young, Eric V. McDonald and Jianting Zhu

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR011963

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      Key Points

      • A positive biotic feedback is most pronounced on well developed alluvial soils
      • A gradient in properties exists between the canopy and bare soil interspace
      • This scalable gradient exists at 1.34 times the canopy radius
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      An intelligent agent for optimal river-reservoir system management

      Jeffrey D. Rieker and John W. Labadie

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR011958

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      Key Points

      • Learning process aimed at gaining implicit knowledge of stochastic hydrology
      • Contrasting methods require explicit prior knowledge of probabilistic models
      • Intelligent agent learns optimal reservoir management policies experientially
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      Characterization of the hydraulics at natural step crests in step-pool streams via weir flow concepts

      David Dust and Ellen Wohl

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011724

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      Key Points

      • Validated applicability of weir-flow concepts to natural step-crest geometries
      • Discharge coefficient varies linearly for weir flow regime
      • Identified upper and lower flow thresholds for discharge coefficient
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      Riparian biogeochemical hot moments induced by stream fluctuations

      Chuanhui Gu, William Anderson and Federico Maggi

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011720

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      Key Points

      • The BSHM is dominated by the hydrological factors
      • Quantitative importance of BSHM at ecosystem scale
      • The BSHM can be upscaled by a dimensionless significance index
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      Can time domain and source area tracers reduce uncertainty in rainfall-runoff models in larger heterogeneous catchments?

      R. Capell, D. Tetzlaff and C. Soulsby

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011543

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      Key Points

      • Dominant runoff generation on larger scales is controlled by geology
      • Tracers provide an integrated response and give answers at the scale of interest
      • Parameters in simple model structures can be constrained using tracer data
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      Linking statistical bias description to multiobjective model calibration

      P. Reichert and N. Schuwirth

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011391

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      Key Points

      • Consideration of bias in model output
      • Linking bias description to multi-objective calibration
      • Explaining reasons for subjectivity in calibration
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      Effect of permeability anisotropy on buoyancy-driven flow for CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers

      Philip Cheng, Michael Bestehorn and Abbas Firoozabadi

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR011939

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      Key Points

      • Anisotropy amplifies all perturbations and strongly affects shorter wavelengths
      • Critical wavelength becomes less meaningful with increasing anisotropy
      • Convection is sustained longer at higher anisotropy
    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Linking typhoon tracks and spatial rainfall patterns for improving flood lead time predictions over a mesoscale mountainous watershed

      Jr-Chuan Huang, Cheng-Ku Yu, Jun-Yi Lee, Lin-Wen Cheng, Tsung-Yu Lee and Shuh-Ji Kao

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011508

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      Key Points

      • Spatial variations of heavy rainfall and their impact on discharge are explored
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      Systematic errors in ground heat flux estimation and their correction

      P. Gentine, D. Entekhabi and B. Heusinkveld

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2010WR010203

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      Key Points

      • Surface soil heat flux concentrates high-frequencies of incoming radiation
      • Current measurement and modeling methodologies miss highest frequencies
      • Soil heat flux need high temporal (1-5 minute) and vertical resolution (1cm)
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      High-resolution ground-penetrating radar monitoring of soil moisture dynamics: Field results, interpretation, and comparison with unsaturated flow model

      Colby M. Steelman, Anthony L. Endres and Jon P. Jones

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011414

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      Key Points

      • Surface-GPR yields valuable information of soil moisture dynamics
      • Direct ground waves provide necessary surface resolution
      • Field results support potential inverse parameter estimation with GPR
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      A conceptual semidistributed model of the Coulazou River as a tool for assessing surface water–karst groundwater interactions during flood in Mediterranean ephemeral rivers

      V. Bailly-Comte, V. Borrell-Estupina, H. Jourde and S. Pistre

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2010WR010072

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      Key Points

      • Quantitative estimate of karst contribution to surface flow
      • Conceptual modeling with parameters compared to measurements in the aquifer
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      Decision scaling: Linking bottom-up vulnerability analysis with climate projections in the water sector

      Casey Brown, Yonas Ghile, Mikaela Laverty and Ke Li

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011212

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      Key Points

      • Decision analysis provides a quantitative framework for climate risk assessment
      • Vulnerability assessment identifies climate risks not limited by projections
      • Climate projections are used to estimate whether risks are likely or not
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      Uncertainty in flood forecasting: A distributed modeling approach in a sparse data catchment

      Pablo A. Mendoza, James McPhee and Ximena Vargas

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011089

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      Key Points

      • Flood forecasting aided by streamflow assimilation in continuous framework
      • Model bias affects assimilation procedure implemented in TOPNET
      • Precipitation supersedes other sources of uncertainty in data-scarce situations
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      Enhancing agrienvironmental outcomes: Market-based approaches to water in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin

      Lin Crase, Sue O'Keefe and Yukio Kinoshita

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR012140

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      Key Points

      • Market mechanisms can deliver simultaneous environmental and economic gains
      • The policy reforms in Australia can provide lessons for others
      • The sequencing of reform, amongst others, is critical
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      Application of Bayesian geostatistics for evaluation of mass discharge uncertainty at contaminated sites

      Mads Troldborg, Wolfgang Nowak, Ida V. Lange, Marta C. Santos, Philip J. Binning and Poul L. Bjerg

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011785

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      Key Points

      • Method provides mass discharge uncertainty bounds vital for risk assessments
      • Including concentration trend helps constrain mass discharge uncertainty
      • Co-simulating conductivity and head helps constrain mass discharge uncertainty
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      Runoff generation in a steep, tropical montane cloud forest catchment on permeable volcanic substrate

      Lyssette E. Muñoz-Villers and Jeffrey J. McDonnell

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011316

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      Key Points

      • Shift from shallow to deeper runoff sources with increasing antecedent wetness
      • Overland flow and shallow subsurface flow does not dominate runoff response
      • Residence time analyses suggest large subsurface water storage capacity
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      A physically based model of global freshwater surface temperature

      Ludovicus P. H. van Beek, Tessa Eikelboom, Michelle T. H. van Vliet and Marc F. P. Bierkens

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR011819

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      Key Points

      • The first global physically based model of freshwater temperature is presented
      • Observed water temperature agrees well with the uncalibrated model
      • Rivers convey heat, and water temperature differs notably from air temperature
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      Bayesian evaluation of groundwater age distribution using radioactive tracers and anthropogenic chemicals

      Arash Massoudieh, Soroosh Sharifi and D. Kip Solomon

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR011815

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      Key Points

      • Single age estimates are not appropriate representatives of groundwater age
      • Uncertainties are due to heterogeneities, adsorption, and biodegradation
      • A Bayesian approach can provide us with the confidence levels of age estimations
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      Using noble gases to analyze the efficiency of artificial aeration in Lake Hallwil, Switzerland

      C. P. Holzner, Y. Tomonaga, A. Stöckli, N. Denecke and R. Kipfer

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR012030

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      Key Points

      • Assessment of artificial aeration system efficiency using noble gases
      • Estimation of effectively dissolved fraction of aeration gas
      • Dissolved Ar excess allows quantification of oxygen transfer to the water body
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      Residence time distributions in sinuosity-driven hyporheic zones and their biogeochemical effects

      Jesus D. Gomez, John L. Wilson and M. Bayani Cardenas

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR012180

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      Key Points

      • RTDs characterize the biogeochemical potential in the meander hyporheic zone
      • We propose tools to predict the biogeochemical potential of meander HZs
      • Valley slope, sinuosity, and hydraulic conductivity dictate the shape of the RTD
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      Coupling of evaporative fluxes from drying porous surfaces with air boundary layer: Characteristics of evaporation from discrete pores

      Ebrahim Shahraeeni, Peter Lehmann and Dani Or

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR011857

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      Key Points

      • Physically-based link between porous media and evaporation demand
      • Explanation of evaporation coupling to the air boundary layer
      • Explanation of evaporation dynamics
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      A direct method of parameter estimation for steady state flow in heterogeneous aquifers with unknown boundary conditions

      J. Irsa and Y. Zhang

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011756

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      Key Points

      • New direct method for inverse problem in groundwater conductivity estimation
      • Stable and unique solution
      • Computationally efficient with converging characteristics
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      Experimental and numerical investigation of saltwater intrusion dynamics in flux-controlled groundwater systems

      Sun Woo Chang and T. Prabhakar Clement

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR012134

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      Key Points

      • Experimental data for flux-controlled saltwater intrusion problems are provided
      • The study provides useful benchmark data sets for testing numerical codes
      • The data explain the timescale differences in intruding and receding wedges
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      Estimation of daily cloud-free, snow-covered areas from MODIS based on variational interpolation

      Qing Xia, Xiaogang Gao, Wei Chu and Soroosh Sorooshian

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011072

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      Key Points

      • Automatic generation of cloud-free snow cover maps
      • Introduction of variational interpolation in earth science applications
      • Validation of the method over California
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      Analysis of rainfall-induced slope instability using a field of local factor of safety

      Ning Lu, Başak Şener-Kaya, Alexandra Wayllace and Jonathan W. Godt

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR011830

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      Key Points

      • A new method for factor of safety of rainfall-induced landslides is proposed
      • The method is systematically compared with the classical methods
      • The method is shown to be excellent for rainfall-induced landslide analysis
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      Groundwater recharge from overbank floods

      Rebecca C. Doble, Russell S. Crosbie, Brian D. Smerdon, Luk Peeters and Freeman J. Cook

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011441

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      Key Points

      • Observation of the process of groundwater recharge from overbank flood events
      • Describing systems with simple equations based on system-limiting factors
      • Testing the developed equations with fully integrated numerical modeling
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      Analysis of regression confidence intervals and Bayesian credible intervals for uncertainty quantification

      Dan Lu, Ming Ye and Mary C. Hill

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011289

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      Key Points

      • Nonlinear confidence and credible intervals are always different in practice
      • Model nonlinearity and local minima affect difference between the intervals
      • Model error is more important than differences between different intervals
      Corrected by:

      Correction: Correction to “Analysis of regression confidence intervals and Bayesian credible intervals for uncertainty quantification”

      Vol. 49, Issue 3, 1753, Article first published online: 26 MAR 2013

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      Estimation of dissolved organic carbon contribution from hillslope soils to a headwater stream

      Yi Mei, George M. Hornberger, Louis A. Kaplan, J. Denis Newbold and Anthony K. Aufdenkampe

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR010815

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      Key Points

      • Measurements of transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) through a soil lysimeter
      • Calculations indicating that a dual permeability model of DOC transport is needed
      • Calculations suggesting that the riparian zone contributes the bulk of DOC to streams
    38. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Impact of sound attenuation by suspended sediment on ADCP backscatter calibrations

      M. G. Sassi, A. J. F. Hoitink and B. Vermeulen

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR012008

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      Key Points

      • ADCPs can yield improved estimates of suspended mass concentration
      • Sound attenuation due to suspended sediment can be estimated empirically
      • Acoustic expressions from field-derived size distributions can be prone to error
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      The effects of floodplain soil heterogeneity on meander planform shape

      D. Motta, J. D. Abad, E. J. Langendoen and M. H. García

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011601

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      Key Points

      • Monte Carlo simulations of meander migration in heterogeneous floodplain
      • Three physically based floodplain soil parameters affect channel migration
      • Floodplain soil complexity is one of the factors of channel planform complexity
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      Efficient incorporation of microbial metabolic lag in subsurface transport modeling

      V. Nilsen, J. A. Wyller and A. Heistad

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011588

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      Key Points

      • Bring a technique from mathematical biology to a wider audience
      • Adapt this technique for use in subsurface contaminant transport modeling
      • Show that the model is easy to implement and that it is of practical relevance
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      The wake structure behind a porous obstruction and its implications for deposition near a finite patch of emergent vegetation

      Zhengbing Chen, Alejandra Ortiz, Lijun Zong and Heidi Nepf

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR012224

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      Key Points

      • We describe the adjustment of flow near an emergent patch of vegetation
      • We develop predictions for velocity and length scales in the patch wake
      • Wake length scales are related to the deposition pattern in the wake
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      A novel analytical solution to steady-state evaporation from porous media

      Morteza Sadeghi, Nima Shokri and Scott B. Jones

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR012060

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      Key Points

      • Improvement of the estimate of evaporation from soil
      • A new analytical solution for water status above a water table
      • Fitting of Brooks-Corey hydraulic conductivity parameters
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      Design and performance of a wireless sensor network for catchment-scale snow and soil moisture measurements

      Branko Kerkez, Steven D. Glaser, Roger C. Bales and Matthew W. Meadows

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011214

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      Key Points

      • Wireless sensor networks are an effective hydrologic measurement platform
      • Strategic sensor placement captures variability of snow depth and soil moisture
    44. You have free access to this content
      Spatial and temporal phosphorus distribution changes in a large wetland ecosystem

      Xavier Zapata-Rios, Rosanna G. Rivero, Ghinwa M. Naja and Pierre Goovaerts

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011421

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      Key Points

      • A valuable tool is presented to assess water quality changes through time
      • Long-term changes indicate a reduction in water phosphorus concentrations
      • Short-term changes indicate a shift to the south of potential areas of concern
    45. You have free access to this content
      Evaporative losses from a common reed-dominated peachleaf willow and cottonwood riparian plant community

      Isa Kabenge and Suat Irmak

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR011902

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      Key Points

      • Stomatal resistance and canopy radiation physics parameters were measured
      • Transpiration was quantified for individual species
      • Surface evaporation was quantified from riparian system
    46. You have free access to this content
      The active bacterial community in a pristine confined aquifer

      Theodore M. Flynn, Robert A. Sanford, Jorge W. Santo Domingo, Nicholas J. Ashbolt, Audrey D. Levine and Craig M. Bethke

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011568

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      Key Points

      • The amount of sulfate in groundwater controls bacterial community structure
      • Iron reducers and sulfate reducers co-exist in this aquifer
      • Ferrous iron and sulfide do not correspond to bacterial community structure
    47. You have free access to this content
      Theory and numerical modeling of electrical self-potential signatures of unsaturated flow in melting snow

      B. Kulessa, D. Chandler, A. Revil and R. Essery

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR012048

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      Key Points

      • Developed new coupled hydroelectric theory and numerical model for snow studies
      • Laboratory data confirm SP as sensitive indicator of unsaturated flow in snow
      • SP controlled by water flux and chemistry, snow texture, and hydraulic properties
    48. You have free access to this content
      Modeling colloid and microorganism transport and release with transients in solution ionic strength

      Scott A. Bradford, Saeed Torkzaban, Hyunjung Kim and Jiri Simunek

      Article first published online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR012468

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      Key Points

      • Improved model for simulating colloid release
      • Adhesive parameters exhibited hysteresis
      • Colloid release was consistent with a torque balance
    49. You have free access to this content
      Analysis of the water level dynamics simulated by a global river model: A case study in the Amazon River

      Dai Yamazaki, Hyongki Lee, Douglas E. Alsdorf, Emanuel Dutra, Hyungjun Kim, Shinjiro Kanae and Taikan Oki

      Article first published online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR011869

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      Key Points

      • Accuracy of water surface elevation simulated by a continental-scale river
      • Simulation accuracy adequate for direct comparison against satellite altimeter
      • Representation of ocean tide variation propagating to the inland Amazon basin
    50. You have free access to this content
      A generalized approach for estimation of in-plane curvature in invasion percolation models for drainage in fractures

      Zhibing Yang, Auli Niemi, Fritjof Fagerlund and Tissa Illangasekare

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR011829

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      Key Points

      • A generalized method for estimating in-plane interfacial curvatures is developed
      • The method does not require predefining an empirical length scale
      • The method is adaptive in choosing the interface length for calculation
    51. You have free access to this content
      Identifying distinct thermal components of a creek

      David A. Boughton, Christine Hatch and Ethan Mora

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011713

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      Key Points

      • DTS is a useful tool for ecological assessment of riparian thermal habitats
      • LDCA and DTS illuminate heating and cooling mechanisms in space and time
      • The riparian canopy appears to subtract heat from the stream
    52. You have free access to this content
      Improved understanding of the searching behavior of ant colony optimization algorithms applied to the water distribution design problem

      A. C. Zecchin, A. R. Simpson, H. R. Maier, A. Marchi and J. B. Nixon

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011652

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      Key Points

      • A framework to analyze ACOs in water distribution design problems is proposed
      • The framework uses both topological decision space and objective space measures
      • The utility of the measures is demonstrated by several case studies
    53. You have free access to this content
      Global monitoring of large reservoir storage from satellite remote sensing

      Huilin Gao, Charon Birkett and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR012063

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      Key Points

      • Global monitoring of large reservoir storage from satellite remote sensing
      • Data products were validated by gage observations
      • Storage variations are in accord with known droughts and high flow periods
    54. You have free access to this content
      Spatially varying fractional flow in radial CO2-brine displacement

      Ana Mijic and Tara C. LaForce

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR010961

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      Key Points

      • Non-Darcy gas phase velocity varies along streamline
      • Fractional flow is a function of both saturation and radial distance
      • MOC is modified to obtain saturation profile for fixed time
    55. You have free access to this content
      Multiscale spatial recorrelation of RCM precipitation to produce unbiased climate change scenarios over large areas and small

      András Bárdossy and Geoffrey Pegram

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011524

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      Key Points

      • RCMs do not reproduce spatial coherence correctly
      • Methods to correct spatial correlation are developed
      • A simulatneous multiscale bias correction is possible
    56. You have free access to this content
      Loading effect of water table variation and density effect on tidal head fluctuations in a coastal aquifer system

      Xuejing Wang, Hailong Li, Li Wan, Futian Liu and Xiaowei Jiang

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011600

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      Key Points

      • A new tidal groundwater solution of the loading effect of water table variation
      • New tidal wave interference forcing from an unconfined to a confined aquifer
      • Numerical verification of ignoring the density effect in analytical studies
  4. Technical Note

    1. Top of page
    2. Correction
    3. Data and Analysis Notes
    4. Regular Article
    5. Technical Note
    1. You have free access to this content
      Approximation of inverse Laplace transform solution to heat transport in a stream system

      J. E. Heavilin and B. T. Neilson

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR012329

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      Key Points

      • Need to understand changing boundary conditions on downstream temperatures
      • Simple approximation developed to predict downstream effects
      • Resulting solution assists in management and data collection for modeling
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      Practical estimates of field-saturated hydraulic conductivity of bedrock outcrops using a modified bottomless bucket method

      Benjamin B. Mirus and Kim S. Perkins

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR012053

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      Key Points

      • A method to estimate field-saturated hydraulic conductivity of bedrock outcrops.
      • Method is accurate and can be employed rapidly with minimal resources.
      • Allows field characterization, statistical analysis, and hypothesis testing
    3. You have free access to this content
      Multispecies transport coupled to a first-order reaction network in a double-domain medium

      Huali Chen, Guoping Ding, Weon Shik Han, Kue-Young Kim and Eungyu Park

      Article first published online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011351

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      Key Points

      • New semianalytical solutions for multispecies transport are developed
      • The analytical solutions represent solute transport in heterogeneous media
      • New sensitivity scheme for multispecies transport is proposed

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