Water Resources Research

Cover image for Vol. 49 Issue 10

October 2013

Volume 49, Issue 10

Pages 6111–7168

  1. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Reviews
    3. Regular Articles
    4. Technical Notes
    5. Data and Analysis Notes
    1. Solute and sediment transport at laboratory and field scale: Contributions of J.-Y. Parlange (pages 6111–6136)

      D. A. Barry, G. C. Sander, S. Jomaa, L. Yeghiazarian, T. S. Steenhuis and J. S. Selker

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20510

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      Key Points

      • Analysis of sediment erosion, transport and deposition
      • Chemical and microbial transport modeled at the laboratory and field scales
      • Water vapor-liquid flow at natural and anthropogenic saline interfaces
    2. Review on airflow in unsaturated zones induced by natural forcings (pages 6137–6165)

      Xingxing Kuang, Jiu Jimmy Jiao and Hailong Li

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20416

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      Key Points

      • Naturally induced subsurface airflow is reviewed
      • Analytical and numerical models for the induced airflow are discussed
      • Applications of the induced airflow are summarized
  2. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Reviews
    3. Regular Articles
    4. Technical Notes
    5. Data and Analysis Notes
    1. A general unified expression for solute and heat dispersion in homogeneous porous media (pages 6166–6178)

      Paul Dirk Bons, Boudewijn Philip van Milligen and Philipp Blum

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20488

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      Key Points

      • An expression for the transverse and longitudinal dispersion coefficient
      • The relation between the solute and heat dispersion coefficient is clarified
      • A new material property is introduced, the critical Peclet number
    2. A nonparametric stochastic method for generating daily climate-adjusted streamflows (pages 6179–6193)

      J. H. Stagge and G. E. Moglen

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20448

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      Key Points

      • Stochastic method links monthly climate indicators to a daily streamflow model.
      • Method produces long realizations of current and climate adjusted streamflow.
      • Daily, monthly, and annual streamflow statistics are reproduced.
    3. Use of color maps and wavelet coherence to discern seasonal and interannual climate influences on streamflow variability in northern catchments (pages 6194–6207)

      Sean K. Carey, Doerthe Tetzlaff, Jim Buttle, Hjalmar Laudon, Jeff McDonnell, Kevin McGuire, Jan Seibert, Chris Soulsby and Jamie Shanley

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20469

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      Key Points

      • Color maps are a unique and novel way to visualize flow patterns and variability
      • Wavelet coherence identifies times and periods of precipitation-runoff coupling
      • The zero-degree mark is a critical factor that controls catchment function
    4. Development of a deterministic downscaling algorithm for remote sensing soil moisture footprint using soil and vegetation classifications (pages 6208–6228)

      Yongchul Shin and Binayak P. Mohanty

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20495

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      Key Points

      • A deterministic downscaling algorithm for remote sensing soil moisture developed
      • Algorithm accounts for land surface heterogeneity within pixel explicitly
      • Determines effective soil hydraulic properties for different sub-pixels
    5. The effect of free-phase NAPL on the spectral induced polarization signature of variably saturated soil (pages 6229–6237)

      I. Shefer, N. Schwartz and A. Furman

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20502

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      Key Points

      • Free-phase NAPL contaminant reduce soil polarization
      • Membrane polarization dominates SIP of free-phase NAPL contaminated soil
      • Relaxation time affected by the geometry of the conductive fluid phase
    6. Physically based regularization of hydrogeophysical inverse problems for improved imaging of process-driven systems (pages 6238–6247)

      E. K. Oware, S. M. J. Moysey and T. Khan

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20462

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      Key Points

      • Integration of hydrologic process constraints within geophysical imaging
      • POD can extract process-based information from numerical simulations
      • POD allows data to compensate when a conceptual transport model is incorrect
    7. A first large-scale flood inundation forecasting model (pages 6248–6257)

      G. J.-P. Schumann, J. C. Neal, N. Voisin, K. M. Andreadis, F. Pappenberger, N. Phanthuwongpakdee, A. C. Hall and P. D. Bates

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20521

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      Key Points

      • A first large scale, yet detailed flood inundation forecasting model
      • Although large scale, the proposed model agrees with high accuracy observations
      • The model was fully tested in a large data-scarce, flood-prone river basin
    8. The foam drainage equation for unsaturated flow in porous media (pages 6258–6265)

      Dani Or and Shmuel Assouline

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20525

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      Key Points

      • drainage foam equation formalism is proposed for unsaturated porous media
      • unsaturated drainage dynamics is quantified without using the Richards equation
      • applications for drainage and outflow and for flow across layers are presented
    9. Rainfall-triggered shallow landslides at catchment scale: Threshold mechanics-based modeling for abruptness and localization (pages 6266–6285)

      J. von Ruette, P. Lehmann and D. Or

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20418

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      Key Points

      • Soil type influences the spatio-temporal patterns of failure dynamics
      • Increased reinforcement of soil leads in decrease of landslides and volumes
      • Model was applied to two event-based landslide inventories
    10. Assessing the extent of altruism in the valuation of community drinking water quality improvements (pages 6286–6297)

      Jing Zhang, Wiktor Adamowicz, Diane P. Dupont and Alan Krupnick

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20447

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      Key Points

      • We find significant differences between self-interested and altruistic WTP.
      • Values of public-good mortality risk reduction depend on the form of altruism.
    11. Hyporheic zone denitrification: Controls on effective reaction depth and contribution to whole-stream mass balance (pages 6298–6316)

      Judson W. Harvey, J. K. Böhlke, Mary A. Voytek, Durelle Scott and Craig R. Tobias

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20492

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      Key Points

      • 1)Tracers show hyporheic-zone denitrification is significant for stream N budget
      • 2)Active volume for denitrification differs from full hyporheic zone
      • 3)Damköhler ratio and hyporheic flux to discharge ratio control significance
    12. An analytical model for solute transport through a water-saturated single fracture and permeable rock matrix (pages 6317–6338)

      J. E. Houseworth, D. Asahina and J. T. Birkholzer

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20497

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      Key Points

      • Analytical solution for solute transport through fracture and rock matrix
      • Effects of cross-flow on solute transport through fracture and rock matrix
      • Effects of longitudinal dispersion on transport through fracture and matrix
    13. Effect of correlated observation error on parameters, predictions, and uncertainty (pages 6339–6355)

      Claire R. Tiedeman and Christopher T. Green

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20499

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      Key Points

      • Error propagation used to calculate observation error correlations
      • Omitting error correlations can increase or decrease parameter uncertainty
      • Effect depends on signs and magnitudes of correlations and sensitivities
    14. Lower forest density enhances snow retention in regions with warmer winters: A global framework developed from plot-scale observations and modeling (pages 6356–6370)

      Jessica D. Lundquist, Susan E. Dickerson-Lange, James A. Lutz and Nicoleta C. Cristea

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20504

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      Key Points

      • Snow lasts longer under forests in colder locations.
      • Snow lasts longer in clearings in warmer locations.
      • This shift occurs because longwave irradiance becomes more important.
    15. Channelization of buoyant nonwetting fluids in saturated porous media (pages 6371–6380)

      C. Huber, Andrea Parmigiani, Jonas Latt and J. Dufek

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20514

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      Key Points

      • surface tension controls competition between capillary fingers
      • Capillary fingers grow at the expense of others
      • distribution of invading fluid becomes highly heterogeneous
    16. Precipitation predictability associated with tropical moisture exports and circulation patterns for a major flood in France in 1995 (pages 6381–6392)

      Mengqian Lu, Upmanu Lall, Aurélien Schwartz and HyunHan Kwon

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20512

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      Key Points

      • Association between extreme precipitation and atmospheric circulations
      • Moisture sources and transports that lead to persistent extreme precipitation
      • Precipitation predictability using identified circulation patterns
    17. A multiobjective ant colony optimization approach for scheduling environmental flow management alternatives with application to the River Murray, Australia (pages 6393–6411)

      J. M. Szemis, G. C. Dandy and H. R. Maier

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20518

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      Key Points

      • Optimal environmental flow schedules are vital in preserving river health
      • A multi-objective environmental flow management framework has been developed
      • The framework has been applied to a river reach in the River Murray, Australia
    18. Data-driven approach to identify field-scale biogeochemical transitions using geochemical and geophysical data and hidden Markov models: Development and application at a uranium-contaminated aquifer (pages 6412–6424)

      Jinsong Chen, Susan S. Hubbard and Kenneth H. Williams

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20524

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      Key Points

      • A data-driven approach was developed to identify biogeochemical transitions
      • IP and geochemical data together provide a key diagnostic signature
      • State-dependent relations improve understanding of bioremediation processes
    19. Optimizing conservation practices in watersheds: Do community preferences matter? (pages 6425–6449)

      Adriana D. Piemonti, Meghna Babbar-Sebens and E. Jane Luzar

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20491

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      Key Points

      • Relating social attitudes and tenures to preference of conservation practices
      • Multi-objective optimization of practices in watersheds with varied land tenure
      • Effect of social attitudes of agricultural communities on optimization results
    20. An assessment of the effect of horizontal soil moisture heterogeneity on the area-average measurement of cosmic-ray neutrons (pages 6450–6458)

      Trenton E. Franz, M. Zreda, T. P. A. Ferre and R. Rosolem

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20530

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      Key Points

      • Gaussian soil moisture fields have minor effects on area-average neutrons
      • Cosmic-ray neutron probe can provide area-average soil moisture data
      • Data valuable for future generation of high-resolution land surface models
    21. Bridging groundwater models and decision support with a Bayesian network (pages 6459–6473)

      Michael N. Fienen, John P. Masterson, Nathaniel G. Plant, Benjamin T. Gutierrez and E. Robert Thieler

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20496

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      Key Points

      • Bayesian network emulation of a groundwater model for efficient decision support
      • The level of complexity balances fit to calibration data with predictive power
      • Assateague Island is a sentinel for groundwater response to sea level rise
    22. Influence of Madden-Julian Oscillation on water budget transported by the Somali low-level jet and the associated Indian summer monsoon rainfall (pages 6474–6485)

      Paulina Ordonez, Pedro Ribera, David Gallego and Cristina Pena-Ortiz

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20515

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      Key Points

      • The MJO modulates Somali low level jet moisture transport.
    23. Urban water demand forecasting and uncertainty assessment using ensemble wavelet-bootstrap-neural network models (pages 6486–6507)

      Mukesh K. Tiwari and Jan Adamowski

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20517

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      Key Points

      • Comparison of different methods for urban water demand forecasting
      • Wavelet-bootstrap-neural network method is found accurate and reliable.
      • Significance of input variables on forecasting performance.
    24. The role of contact angle on unstable flow formation during infiltration and drainage in wettable porous media (pages 6508–6521)

      Rony Wallach, Michal Margolis and Ellen R. Graber

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20522

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      Key Points

      • Non-zero contact angle induces saturation overshoot in wettable media
      • Contact angle induces sharp change in water content along the plumes perimeter
      • Contact angle and water flux determine the plume dimension and size
    25. An assessment of seawater intrusion overshoot using physical and numerical modeling (pages 6522–6526)

      Leanne K. Morgan, Leonard Stoeckl, Adrian D. Werner and Vincent E. A. Post

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20526

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      Key Points

      • Physical experiments of sea-level rise/drop and seawater intrusion.
      • Seawater intrusion overshoot observed in physical experiments.
      • Numerical model was able to reproduce the new experimental data.
    26. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      An uncertain journey around the tails of multivariate hydrological distributions (pages 6527–6547)

      Francesco Serinaldi

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20531

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      Key Points

      • Refined multivariate distributions do not improve extrapolation
      • Joint confidence intervals are introduced
      • Appropriate multivariate design events are derived
    27. Mean and turbulent flow structure during the amalgamation process in fluvial bed forms (pages 6548–6560)

      Christian E. Frias and Jorge D. Abad

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20456

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      Key Points

      • Amalgamation of ripples over dunes induces complex flow structure
    28. Stress induced permeability anisotropy of Resedimented Boston Blue Clay (pages 6561–6571)

      Amy L. Adams, John T. Germaine, Peter B. Flemings and Ruarri J. Day-Stirrat

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20470

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      Key Points

      • Permeability anisotropy can be systematically measured using cubic specimens.
      • Permeability anisotropy develops as a result of platy particle rotation
      • The permeability anisotropy of compressed mudrocks is limited to <2.5.
    29. Improving evapotranspiration estimates in Mediterranean drylands: The role of soil evaporation (pages 6572–6586)

      Laura Morillas, Ray Leuning, Luis Villagarcía, Mónica García, Penélope Serrano-Ortiz and Francisco Domingo

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20468

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      Key Points

      • An adaptation of an evapotranspiration model is presented for drylands
      • Three methods for improving the soil contributions are presented
      • The capacity of the adapted model is demonstrated in drylands
    30. Geostatistical reduced-order models in underdetermined inverse problems (pages 6587–6600)

      Xiaoyi Liu, Quanlin Zhou, Jens Birkholzer and Walter A. Illman

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20489

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      Key Points

      • A new reduced-order model is proposed for geostatistical inverse modeling
      • GROM is based on the solution space of geostatistical inverse problems
      • Accuracy of inverse modeling is high with the GROM
    31. Onset of deep drainage and salt mobilization following forest clearing and cultivation in the Chaco plains (Argentina) (pages 6601–6612)

      M. L. Amdan, R. Aragón, E. G. Jobbágy, J. N. Volante and J. M. Paruelo

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20516

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      Key Points

      • Deep drainage and salt mobilization.
      • Land use cover changes from dry forest to crops
      • Changes in evapotranspiration rates
    32. Hydrodynamic analysis of storm movement effects on runoff hydrographs and loop-rating curves of a V-shaped watershed (pages 6613–6623)

      Dae-Hong Kim and Yongwon Seo

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20535

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      Key Points

      • Rainstorm movement affects the shape of loop-rating curves.
      • Time to peak is independent on the rainstorm movement direction.
      • Local and advective acceleration terms may not be ignored in overland flow.
    33. Formulation and evaluation of a scale decomposition-based stochastic precipitation nowcast scheme (pages 6624–6641)

      Alan W. Seed, Clive E. Pierce and Katie Norman

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20536

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      Key Points

      • Ensembles represent the forecast uncertainty to the users
      • statistical properties of rainfall and forecast error varies in space and time
      • radar observation errors are significant in the first hour of a nowcast
    34. A combined field sampling-modeling approach for computing sediment transport during flash floods in a gravel-bed stream (pages 6642–6655)

      S. Francalanci, E. Paris and L. Solari

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20544

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      Key Points

      • We carried out field measurements of sediment transport in a gravel-bed river
      • Lateral and temporal flow variability was considered to minimize errors
      • A combined field sampling-modeling approach for a sedimentograph is proposed
    35. Analysis of runoff extremes using spatial hierarchical Bayesian modeling (pages 6656–6670)

      Mohammad Reza Najafi and Hamid Moradkhani

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20381

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      Key Points

      • Hierarchical model significantly reduces flood estimation uncertainty.
      • GPD Scale not sensitive to covariance latent parameter prior distribution.
      • Increasing trend of extreme runoffs in recent fifteen year period.
    36. The value of model averaging and dynamical climate model predictions for improving statistical seasonal streamflow forecasts over Australia (pages 6671–6687)

      Prafulla Pokhrel, Q. J. Wang and David E. Robertson

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20449

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      Key Points

      • Uses multi-model combination to improve seasonal streamflow forecasts
      • Uses information from dynamic models to further improve forecast performance
    37. Experimental design for estimating unknown groundwater pumping using genetic algorithm and reduced order model (pages 6688–6699)

      Timothy T. Ushijima and William W.-G. Yeh

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20513

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      Key Points

      • Developed fast reduced models that accurately estimate the Jacobian matrix.
      • Coupled GA with reduced model to perform combinatorial search in reduced space.
      • Showed how reduced models can solve large-scale experimental design problems
    38. Exploring the hydrological robustness of model-parameter values with alpha shapes (pages 6700–6715)

      José-Luis Guerrero, Ida K. Westerberg, Sven Halldin, Lars-Christer Lundin and Chong-Yu Xu

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20533

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      Key Points

      • Depth functions help identify hydrologically robust model parameter values
      • Alpha shapes allow a tight delimitation of the behavioral parameter space
      • Computational geometry tools can be used to estimate parameter values
    39. Spatial assessment of precipitation deficits in the Duero basin (central Spain) with multivariate extreme value statistics (pages 6716–6730)

      M. Kallache, P. Naveau and M. Vrac

      Article first published online: 17 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20490

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      Key Points

      • Dependence of extr. droughts is affected by dist. and topology, but not solely.
      • Maps of dependence of extreme events are valuable additional information.
      • Consideration of drought variability in space improves water management.
    40. The 2010/2011 snow season in California's Sierra Nevada: Role of atmospheric rivers and modes of large-scale variability (pages 6731–6743)

      Bin Guan, Noah P. Molotch, Duane E. Waliser, Eric J. Fetzer and Paul J. Neiman

      Article first published online: 17 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20537

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      Key Points

      • The anomalously snowy winter season of 2010/11 in the Sierra Nevada is analyzed.
      • An exceptionally large number of atmospheric rivers occurred during the season.
      • The increased AR occurrence is attributed to the joint phasing of AO and PNA.
    41. Simultaneous calibration of ensemble river flow predictions over an entire range of lead times (pages 6744–6755)

      S. Hemri, F. Fundel and M. Zappa

      Article first published online: 17 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20542

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      Key Points

      • Post-processing of hydrologic ensemble forecasts using multivariate BMA
    42. How should trends in hydrological extremes be estimated? (pages 6756–6764)

      Robin T. Clarke

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20485

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      Key Points

      • Trends in extremes differ according to how you calculate them.
      • The uncertainties in estimated trends also differ.
      • Hence there is uncertainty in trend magnitude.
    43. Simple consistent models for water retention and hydraulic conductivity in the complete moisture range (pages 6765–6780)

      A. Peters

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20548

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      Key Points

      • Empirical models distinguish between capillary, adsorptive and film components
      • New models are easy to use in parameter estimation procedures and simulations
      • Neglecting film flow can lead to a significant underestimation of water fluxes
    44. Variability of moisture sources in the Mediterranean region during the period 1980–2000 (pages 6781–6794)

      Mar Gómez-Hernández, Anita Drumond, Luis Gimeno and Ricardo Garcia-Herrera

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20538

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      Key Points

      • The seasonal variability of moisture sources in the Mediterranean was studied
      • Moisture sources show in general a seasonal variability
      • The interannual variability is limited
    45. Robust optimization for water distribution systems least cost design (pages 6795–6809)

      Lina Perelman, Mashor Housh and Avi Ostfeld

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20539

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      Key Points

      • Uncertainty inclusion in robust least cost design of water networks
      • Model development for uncertainty insertion with implicit design reliability
      • Methodology for head loss linearization for robust counterpart modeling
    46. Formulation of a mathematical approach to regional frequency analysis (pages 6810–6833)

      Bidroha Basu and V. V. Srinivas

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20540

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      Key Points

      • A new mathematical approach to regional frequency analysis is proposed.
      • Method to construct population growth curve in dimensionless space is proposed.
      • Proposed approach is shown to outperform methods related to index-flood approach
    47. Using field data to inform and evaluate a new model of catchment hydrologic connectivity (pages 6834–6846)

      Tyler Smith, Lucy Marshall, Brian McGlynn and Kelsey Jencso

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20546

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      Key Points

      • Simple hydrologic models typically fail to reproduce internal dynamics
      • Catchment structure was used to inform a new model structure
      • Model results demonstrated consistency with catchment hydrologic connectivity
    48. Excess air formation as a mechanism for delivering oxygen to groundwater (pages 6847–6856)

      L. Mächler, S. Peter, M. S. Brennwald and R. Kipfer

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20547

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      Key Points

      • Excess air formation induced by water table fluctuations oxygenates groundwater
      • Noble gas concentrations are tracers for oxygen input into groundwater
      • Excess air formation depends on local geomorphology
    49. Suspended sediment transport at the instantaneous and event time scales in semiarid watersheds of southeastern Arizona, USA (pages 6857–6870)

      Peng Gao, Mark A. Nearing and Michael Commons

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20549

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      Key Points

      • Instantaneous sediment transport cannot be described by a single equation
      • Suspended sediment dynamics can be best characterized at the event time scale
      • Event-based sediment transport can be described by a proportional model
    50. An adaptive sparse-grid high-order stochastic collocation method for Bayesian inference in groundwater reactive transport modeling (pages 6871–6892)

      Guannan Zhang, Dan Lu, Ming Ye, Max Gunzburger and Clayton Webster

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20467

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      Key Points

      • High-order stochastic collocation method is used for Bayesian inference
      • Adaptive sparse grids are employed to reduce computational cost
      • An iterative algorithm is proposed for simulating PPDF with multiple modes
    51. Time to reach near-steady state in large aquifers (pages 6893–6908)

      P. Rousseau-Gueutin, A. J. Love, G. Vasseur, N. I. Robinson, C. T. Simmons and G. de Marsily

      Article first published online: 23 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20534

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      Key Points

      • New analytical solution to assess time to reach equilibrium in mixed aquifers
      • Current hydraulic heads may be a complex mixture of past and present climate
      • Some large aquifers may have never been in steady state since their formation
    52. Temporal dynamics of biogeochemical processes at the Norman Landfill site (pages 6909–6926)

      Bhavna Arora, Binayak P. Mohanty, Jennifer T. McGuire and Isabelle M. Cozzarelli

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20484

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      Key Points

      • Evaluates the temporal features of a geochemical dataset at a closed landfill
      • Links temporal variability to hydrologic perturbations and geologic framework
      • Finds nitrate and carbon to be exceptions to the dominant scales of variation
    53. An extension of Miller scaling to scale sorptivity by contact angle (pages 6927–6932)

      Rony Wallach and Qiuling Wang

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20505

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      Key Points

      • Narrower fingers will develop at higher contact angels and/or wavier pores shape
      • Sorptivity dependence on contact angle vary with pore geometry characteristics
    54. Optimizing an estuarine water quality monitoring program through an entropy-based hierarchical spatiotemporal Bayesian framework (pages 6933–6945)

      Ibrahim Alameddine, Subhankar Karmakar, Song S. Qian, Hans W. Paerl and Kenneth H. Reckhow

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20509

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      Key Points

      • Developed an entropy-based spatiotemporal framework for network redesign
      • Multiple attribute decision making allows for multi-criteria optimization
      • Showed differences between probability and entropy based redesign approaches
    55. Quantifying effects of catchments storage thresholds on step changes in the flood frequency curve (pages 6946–6958)

      Magdalena Rogger, Alberto Viglione, Julia Derx and Günter Blöschl

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20553

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      Key Points

      • The step change decreases with increasing variab. of anteced. soil storage
      • The step change increases with increasing avg size of variably sat region
      • The return per. of step changes depends on the return per. of rainfall vol
    56. Weighted objective function selector algorithm for parameter estimation of SVAT models with remote sensing data (pages 6959–6978)

      Joseph A. P. Pollacco, Binayak P. Mohanty and Andreas Efstratiadis

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20554

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      Key Points

      • Inversion of hydraulic parameters using both surface soil moisture and ET
      • Weighted Objective Function (WOF) minimize the uncertainties of water fluxes
      • Developed relationships between optimized WOF and hydroclimatic indicators
    57. Statistical mapping of zones of focused groundwater/surface-water exchange using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (pages 6979–6984)

      Kisa Mwakanyamale, Frederick D. Day-Lewis and Lee D. Slater

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20458

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      Key Points

      • Uncertainty is assigned in mapping groundwater exchange zones
      • Multiple frequencies is more informative in discriminant analysis
      • Spectral signatures of mapped zones can be identified with space limited data
    58. Multivariate assessment of droughts: Frequency analysis and dynamic return period (pages 6985–6994)

      C. De Michele, G. Salvadori, R. Vezzoli and S. Pecora

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20551

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      Key Points

      • We introduce the concept of dynamic return period to describe drought evolution
      • We assess drought frequency in multivariate problems using the theory of copulas
      • We use a randomization procedure to deal with data repetitions in the sample
    59. Multiresolution analysis of precipitation teleconnections with large-scale climate signals: A case study in South Australia (pages 6995–7008)

      Xinguang He and Huade Guan

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20560

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      Key Points

      • Multi-temporal & spatial patterns of precipitation teleconnections
      • Interdependence between climate signals at different time scales
      • Improving interpretation of monthly precipitation temporal variability
    60. A Bayesian extreme value analysis of debris flows (pages 7009–7022)

      Natalia Nolde and Harry Joe

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20494

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      Key Points

      • Standard return level estimates too imprecise for practical use
      • Inclusion of additional information has potential to improve precision
      • A Bayesian analysis with an informative prior is proposed
    61. Coupled simulation of DNAPL infiltration and dissolution in three-dimensional heterogeneous domains: Process model validation (pages 7023–7036)

      A. Kokkinaki, D. M. O'Carroll, C. J. Werth and B. E. Sleep

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20503

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      Key Points

      • DNAPL infiltration and dissolution in complex domains are accurately predicted
      • Dissolution rate limitations in low saturation regions control DNAPL depletion
      • Thermodynamically based interfacial area calculations give the best results
    62. Modeling effect of initial soil moisture on sorptivity and infiltration (pages 7037–7047)

      Ryan D. Stewart, David E. Rupp, Majdi R. Abou Najm and John S. Selker

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20508

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      Key Points

      • A new formula to quantify soil sorptivity as a function of initial soil moisture
      • Provides a method to quantify the saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil
      • Can be used to detect seasonal changes in soil properties
    63. On hydrological model complexity, its geometrical interpretations and prediction uncertainty (pages 7048–7063)

      Liselot Arkesteijn and Saket Pande

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20529

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      Key Points

      • Algorithm to calculate model complexity
      • Size of model output space as geometrical interpretation of model complexity
      • Prediction error in terms of finite sample error and model complexity
    64. Application of ensemble-based data assimilation techniques for aquifer characterization using tracer data at Hanford 300 area (pages 7064–7076)

      Xingyuan Chen, Glenn E. Hammond, Chris J. Murray, Mark L. Rockhold, Vince R. Vermeul and John M. Zachara

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2012WR013285

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      Key Points

      • p-space EnKF was effective for characterizing a heterogeneous aquifer.
      • Iterative approaches are necessary to reduce the nonlinearity of a problem.
      • HPC is necessary for ensemble-based data assimilation in complex systems .
    65. Evaluation of river restoration by local residents (pages 7077–7087)

      Roman Seidl and Michael Stauffacher

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013988

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      Key Points

      • We investigate whether local residents accept a river restoration project
      • There are differences among local inhabitants and between villages
      • For farmers, flood protection is more important to explain acceptance
    66. Learning sparse geologic dictionaries from low-rank representations of facies connectivity for flow model calibration (pages 7088–7101)

      Entao Liu and Behnam Jafarpour

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20545

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      Key Points

      • Flow model calibration with sparse geologic dictionaries
      • Sparse pattern learning from low-rank representation of facies connectivity
      • Promoting large-scale connectivity of facies during model calibration
    67. Borehole water level response to barometric pressure as an indicator of aquifer vulnerability (pages 7102–7119)

      Mahmoud E. A. Hussein, Noelle E. Odling and Roger A. Clark

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014134

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      Key Points

      • Barometric response functions are used to quantify aquifer vulnerability.
      • Barometric response function sensitivity to flow pathways in confining layers
      • Characteristic time scale suggested as quantitative measure of vulnerability
  3. Technical Notes

    1. Top of page
    2. Reviews
    3. Regular Articles
    4. Technical Notes
    5. Data and Analysis Notes
    1. Calculating uncertainty in regional estimates of trend in streamflow with both serial and spatial correlations (pages 7120–7125)

      Robin T. Clarke

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20465

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      Key Points

      • Variance is found for trend in serially-correlated records.
      • This is extended to give the variance of spatially correlated trends
      • These variances are used to test hypotheses about the nature of trends.
    2. High-resolution fracture aperture mapping using optical profilometry (pages 7126–7132)

      Pasha Ameli, Jean E. Elkhoury and Russell L. Detwiler

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20501

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      Key Points

      • Optical profilometry yields reproducible measurements of surface roughness.
      • Reproducible reconstruction of fracture apertures from surface measurements
      • Scalable, high-resolution measurement of fracture apertures.
    3. Porous media pressure distribution in centrifugal fields (pages 7133–7138)

      W. L. Hogarth, F. Stagnitti, D. A. Barry, D. A. Lockington, L. Li and J.-Y. Parlange

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20487

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      Key Points

      • using centrifuges to measure soil water conductivity for steady state conditions
      • analytical solutions are obtained to interpret data directly and transparently
      • error on pressure is less than 1% instead of 10% with previous solutions
    4. Modeling multisite streamflow dependence with maximum entropy copula (pages 7139–7143)

      Z. Hao and V. P. Singh

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20523

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      Key Points

      • Development of the copula with maximum entropy
      • Proposal of the maximum entropy copula for streamflow simulation
      • Modeling of the temporal and spatial dependence structure
    5. Extended contingency table: Performance metrics for satellite observations and climate model simulations (pages 7144–7149)

      A. AghaKouchak and A. Mehran

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20498

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      Key Points

      • Volumetric metric provide valuable information beyond categorical metrics
      • Categorical metrics of the contingency table are extended to volumetric measures
      • Presented metrics can be used for validation of all types of gridded data
    6. Reconciling radiation dissipation in the spatial and spectral domains under stable conditions (pages 7150–7153)

      Nelson L. Dias

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20460

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      Key Points

      • a 1st-order decay constant is obtained from a spectral dissipation function
      • the kaimal spectrum constant is reviewed to give an exact integral
      • two approaches to the 1st-order decay are shown to have similar behaviors
  4. Data and Analysis Notes

    1. Top of page
    2. Reviews
    3. Regular Articles
    4. Technical Notes
    5. Data and Analysis Notes
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The Krycklan Catchment Study—A flagship infrastructure for hydrology, biogeochemistry, and climate research in the boreal landscape (pages 7154–7158)

      Hjalmar Laudon, Ida Taberman, Anneli Ågren, Martyn Futter, Mikaell Ottosson-Löfvenius and Kevin Bishop

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20520

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      Key Points

      • Provides a background of the Krycklan Catchment Study
      • Provides a guide on how to access the uniqe database
      • Provides an overview of the available data
    2. Data set for hydrodynamic lake model calibration: A deep prealpine case (pages 7159–7163)

      Marco Pilotti, Giulia Valerio and Barbara Leoni

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20506

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      Key Points

      • A long and comprehensive data set for a deep pre-alpine lake is provided
      • The data set can be used to test and calibrate hydrodynamic lake models
      • The data set highlights relevant aspects of a deep lake dynamics
    3. A simple global river bankfull width and depth database (pages 7164–7168)

      Konstantinos M. Andreadis, Guy J.-P. Schumann and Tamlin Pavelsky

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20440

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      Key Points

      • Developed a global river database
      • Used hydraulic geometry equations
      • Leveraged existing hydrologic datasets

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