Water Resources Research

Cover image for Vol. 49 Issue 2

February 2013

Volume 49, Issue 2

Pages 647–1197

  1. Rapid Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Rapid Communications
    3. Regular Articles
    4. Technical Note
    5. Comment
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    1. Generation, transport, and disposal of wastewater associated with Marcellus Shale gas development (pages 647–656)

      Brian D. Lutz, Aurana N. Lewis and Martin W. Doyle

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20096

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      Key Points

      • First comprehensive estimates of wastewater from Marcellus shale gas wells
      • Marcellus wells produce less wastewater per unit gas than conventional wells
      • Cumulative Marcellus wastewater volume may soon overwhelm disposal capacity
  2. Regular Articles

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    2. Rapid Communications
    3. Regular Articles
    4. Technical Note
    5. Comment
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    1. Assessment of solute fluxes beneath an orchard irrigated with treated sewage water: A numerical study (pages 657–674)

      David Russo, Asher Laufer, Roi H. Shapira and Daniel Kurtzman

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20085

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      Key Points

      • Vadose zone attenuates nitrate load in groundwater
      • Information from a single sampling point cannot describe 3-D flow system
      • An additional sampling point improves description of flow system
    2. Flood frequency hydrology: 3. A Bayesian analysis (pages 675–692)

      Alberto Viglione, Ralf Merz, José Luis Salinas and Günter Blöschl

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR010782

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      Key Points

      • Sensitivity to one extreme flood decreases when including additional information
      • Additional information reduces uncertainty of flood estimates
      • Sensitivity to the assumptions on individual pieces of information is small
    3. Modeling sediment-related enterococci loading, transport, and inactivation at an embayed nonpoint source beach (pages 693–712)

      Zhixuan Feng, Ad Reniers, Brian K. Haus and Helena M. Solo-Gabriele

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR012432

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      Key Points

      • A coupled microbe-hydrodynamic-morphological model has been developed
      • Tides and waves are fundamental factors to load enterococci from sediment
      • Bacterial exceedances are likely when local wind waves coincide with high tides
    4. Cross-correlation analysis and information content of observed heads during pumping in unconfined aquifers (pages 713–731)

      Deqiang Mao, Tian-Chyi J. Yeh, Li Wan, Cheng-Haw Lee, Kuo-Chin Hsu, Jet-Chau Wen and Wenxi Lu

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20066

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      Key Points

      • cross-correlation for pumping tests analysis in unconfined aquifers
      • geological structure and variability are both considered during analysis
      • cross-correlation results are not axisymmetric
    5. A new technique for obtaining high-resolution pore pressure records in thick claystone aquitards and its use to determine in situ compressibility (pages 732–743)

      Laura A. Smith, Garth van der Kamp and M. Jim Hendry

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20084

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      Key Points

      • Lab tests overestimate alpha and Ss by as much as 2 orders of magnitude
      • A new technique presented to determine alpha and Ss using pressure transducers
      • In all cases the lab tests overestimated alpha and Ss compared to in situ values
    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Coupled hydromechanical and electromagnetic disturbances in unsaturated porous materials (pages 744–766)

      A. Revil and H. Mahardika

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20092

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      Key Points

      • First model built for unsaturated materials
      • Basis for new methods to investigate the vadose zone
      • All the material properties are related to measurable parameters
    7. A bivariate mixed distribution with a heavy-tailed component and its application to single-site daily rainfall simulation (pages 767–789)

      Chao Li, Vijay P. Singh and Ashok K. Mishra

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20063

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      Key Points

      • An improved bivariate mixed distribution with a heavy-tailed component
      • A daily rainfall generator based on the improved bivariate mixed distribution
      • Extensitive comparison with three alternative daily rainfall generators
    8. Links between soil properties and steady-state solute transport through cultivated topsoil at the field scale (pages 790–807)

      J. K. Koestel, T. Norgaard, N. M. Luong, A. L. Vendelboe, P. Moldrup, N. J. Jarvis, M. Lamandé, B. V. Iversen and L. Wollesen de Jonge

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20079

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      Key Points

      • 64 of 65 undisturbed soil columns exhibited preferential transport
      • The strength of preferential transport was correlated with the bulk density
      • The dominant transport process was inferred to be transport through macropores
    9. Virus and virus-sized microsphere transport in a dolomite rock fracture (pages 808–824)

      Pulin K. Mondal and Brent E. Sleep

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20086

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      Key Points

      • Bacteriophage and microsphere transport studied in dolomite fracture
      • Bacteriophage and microsphere transport are quite different
      • Two site kinetic model used to model transport
    10. Data-based comparison of frequency analysis methods: A general framework (pages 825–843)

      B. Renard, K. Kochanek, M. Lang, F. Garavaglia, E. Paquet, L. Neppel, K. Najib, J. Carreau, P. Arnaud, Y. Aubert, F. Borchi, J.-M. Soubeyroux, S. Jourdain, J.-M. Veysseire, E. Sauquet, T. Cipriani and A. Auffray

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20087

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      Key Points

      • A general framework for comparing frequency analysis methods
      • Focus is on the predictive performance of frequency analysis methods
      • Reliability of uncertainty estimates is assessed using a predictive distribution
    11. Tree rings and multiseason drought variability in the lower Rio Grande Basin, USA (pages 844–850)

      C. A. Woodhouse, D. M. Meko, D. Griffin and C. L. Castro

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20098

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      Key Points

      • A new tree-ring data network is used to reconstruct the southwestern US monsoon
      • Reconstructions indicate low Rio Grande flow followed by a dry summer is common
      • The severity of the current Rio Grande basin drought is not yet unprecedented
    12. Comparison of confined and unconfined infiltration in transparent porous media (pages 851–863)

      G. A. Siemens, S. B. Peters and W. A. Take

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20101

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      Key Points

      • New technique of unsaturated transparent porous media
      • Results showing effect of air entrapment on infiltration
      • Green-Ampt model and a second gradation confirm results
    13. Steady plumes in heterogeneous porous formations: A stochastic Lagrangian approach (pages 864–873)

      A. Zarlenga and A. Fiori

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20106

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      Key Points

      • Steady concentration (C) field in heterogeneous formations is analyzed
      • Analytical solutions for the mean and variance of C are developed
      • Local scale dispersion exerts a great influence on both C moments
    14. Pore-scale evaluation of uranyl phosphate precipitation in a model groundwater system (pages 874–890)

      Michael F. Fanizza, Hongkyu Yoon, Changyong Zhang, Martinus Oostrom, Thomas W. Wietsma, Nancy J. Hess, Mark E. Bowden, Timothy J. Strathmann, Kevin T. Finneran and Charles J. Werth

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20088

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      Key Points

      • In situ uranyl phosphate precipitation is fast on the time scale of remediation
      • Ca2+ & SO42- affect uranyl phosphate precipitation rate and morphology
      • Only chernikovite is formed, and it blocks pore spaces and reduces mixing
    15. Sensor placement strategies for snow water equivalent (SWE) estimation in the American River basin (pages 891–903)

      Stephen C. Welch, Branko Kerkez, Roger C. Bales, Steven D. Glaser, Karl Rittger and Robert R. Rice

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20100

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      Key Points

      • There exists temporally stationary properties of basin-wide SWE distribution
      • Temporally stationary properties of SWE can be used to inform sensor placement
      • A quantitative sampling method can be implemented to generate sensor placements
    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Groundwater depletion in the Middle East from GRACE with implications for transboundary water management in the Tigris-Euphrates-Western Iran region (pages 904–914)

      Katalyn A. Voss, James S. Famiglietti, MinHui Lo, Caroline de Linage, Matthew Rodell and Sean C. Swenson

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20078

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      Key Points

      • Massive rate of groundwater depletion in the Middle East
      • Would not have been observable if not for space-based methods.
      • New policies are required for peaceable, sustainable water management
    17. Hypothetico-inductive data-based mechanistic modeling of hydrological systems (pages 915–935)

      Peter C. Young

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20068

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      Key Points

      • The combination of inductive, data-based mechanistic and conceptual modeling
      • State-dependent parameter, transfer function model estimation
      • The use of recursive estimation to investigate model structure inadequacy
    18. Modeling increases in snowmelt yield and desynchronization resulting from forest gap-thinning treatments in a northern mountain headwater basin (pages 936–949)

      C. R. Ellis, J. W. Pomeroy and T. E. Link

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20089

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      Key Points

      • Forest thinning treatments in mountain regions may substantially alter snowmelt
      • Changes in snowmelt timing from forest thinning depend on slope and aspect.
      • Changes in snowmelt timing are caused primarily by shifts in radiation to snow.
    19. Mapping evaporation and estimation of surface control of evaporation using remotely sensed land surface temperature from a constellation of satellites (pages 950–968)

      S. M. Bateni, D. Entekhabi and F. Castelli

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20071

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      Key Points

      • LST is assimilated to heat diffusion equation to estimate evaporation.
      • Evaporation estimations are used to study the surface control on evaporation.
      • Dependence of EF-soil moisture relationship on vegetation cover is examined.
    20. Vegetation control on water and energy balance within the Budyko framework (pages 969–976)

      Dan Li, Ming Pan, Zhentao Cong, Lu Zhang and Eric Wood

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20107

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      Key Points

      • The role of vegetation within the Budyko framework is examined.
      • In large-scale basins, vegetation affects water/energy balances significantly.
      • In small-scale catchments, the controlling impact of vegetation is diminished.
    21. High-resolution 3-D monitoring of evolving sediment beds (pages 977–992)

      Polydefkis (Pol) Bouratsis, Panayiotis Diplas, Clinton L. Dancey and Nikolaos Apsilidis

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20110

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      Key Points

      • We describe a new technique for measuring the topography of evolving beds.
      • The new technique was applied to a bridge scour experiment.
      • The main advantage is the high spatiotemporal resolution.
    22. Two-phase flow in rough-walled fractures: Comparison of continuum and invasion-percolation models (pages 993–1002)

      Zhibing Yang, Auli Niemi, Fritjof Fagerlund and Tissa Illangasekare

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20111

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      Key Points

      • Two different modeling approaches are compared for ranges of applicability
      • Results from the two models converge at low capillary number conditions
      • Effect of capillary number is simulated & upscaled Pc-S relationship is obtained
    23. Data evaluation for acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements obtained at fixed locations in a natural river (pages 1003–1016)

      John Petrie, Panayiotis Diplas, Marte Gutierrez and Soonkie Nam

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20112

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      Key Points

      • Velocity measurements are obtained with an ADCP in a regulated river
      • Procedures to assess the ADCP motion and record length are presented
      • Use of the law of the wall for flow in natural rivers is discussed
    24. Calculating sediment trapping efficiencies for reservoirs in tropical settings: A case study from the Burdekin Falls Dam, NE Australia (pages 1017–1029)

      Stephen E. Lewis, Zoë T. Bainbridge, Petra M. Kuhnert, Bradford S. Sherman, Brent Henderson, Cameron Dougall, Michelle Cooper and Jon E. Brodie

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20117

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      Key Points

      • Brune and Churchill curves poorly predict reservoir trapping in tropical rivers
      • A modification to the Churchill curve shows promise to better predict trapping
      • The partitioning of particle size fractions through reservoirs are highlighted
    25. Recognizing and modeling variable drawdown due to evapotranspiration in a semiarid riparian zone considering local differences in vegetation and distance from a river source (pages 1030–1039)

      Brady Johnson, Bwalya Malama, Warren Barrash and Alejandro N. Flores

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20122

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      Key Points

      • Analytical model developed for river leakage contribution to riparian zone ET
      • River contributions to ET can be distinguished in relative drawdown at wells
      • Improved relative contributions to ET from river and aquifer can be calculated
    26. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The Millennium Drought in southeast Australia (2001–2009): Natural and human causes and implications for water resources, ecosystems, economy, and society (pages 1040–1057)

      Albert I. J. M. van Dijk, Hylke E. Beck, Russell S. Crosbie, Richard A. M. de Jeu, Yi Y. Liu, Geoff M. Podger, Bertrand Timbal and Neil R. Viney

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20123

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      Key Points

      • Drivers and impacts of Australia's record drought were analyzed
      • Impacts accumulated and propagated through the water cycle at different rates
      • Future droughts may not be managed better than past ones.
    27. A mass-conservative method for the integration of the two-dimensional groundwater (Boussinesq) equation (pages 1058–1078)

      E. Cordano and R. Rigon

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20072

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      Key Points

      • Two-Dimensional Ground-Water Boussinesq Equation
      • Mass-conservative numerical method
      • Application to complex topography
    28. Mapping extreme snowfalls in the French Alps using max-stable processes (pages 1079–1098)

      J. Gaume, N. Eckert, G. Chambon, M. Naaim and L. Bel

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20083

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      Key Points

      • Analysis of extreme snowfall data using spatial extreme statistics
      • Mapping of extreme snowfall water equivalent using max-stable processes
      • Obtaining return level maps, operational tool for avalanche risk management
    29. Contribution of mechanical dispersion of vapor to soil evaporation (pages 1099–1106)

      Jordi Grifoll

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20105

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      Key Points

      • Mechanical dispersion of vapor could make a large contribution to evaporation
      • Stefan flow can generate significant mechanical dispersion flux
      • Mechanical dispersion and diffusion behave in a complementary way
    30. Testing above- and below-canopy representations of turbulent fluxes in an energy balance snowmelt model (pages 1107–1122)

      Vinod Mahat, David G. Tarboton and Noah P. Molotch

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20073

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      Key Points

      • Model that represents above and below canopy turbulent energy fluxes over snow
      • Quantifies sensitivity of snowmelt to vegetation consistent with measurements
      • Validated using both above and within canopy measurements
    31. On the separate effects of soil and land cover on Mediterranean ecohydrology: Two contrasting case studies in Sardinia, Italy (pages 1123–1136)

      Nicola Montaldo, Roberto Corona and John D. Albertson

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR012171

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      Key Points

      • Comparison of evapotraspiration observations at 2 Mediterranean ecosystems
      • CO2 and water use efficiency at two competitive ecosystems
      • Investigate the role of the vegetation type on ET and CO2 exchange dynamics
    32. In bad waters: Water year classification in nonstationary climates (pages 1137–1148)

      Sarah E. Null and Joshua H. Viers

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20097

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      Key Points

      • The frequency of water year types changes significantly with climate change.
      • Strategies to adapt water year classification indices affect water allocations.
      • Water year indices determine how much water ecosystems receive.
    33. Pore geometry effects on intrapore viscous to inertial flows and on effective hydraulic parameters (pages 1149–1162)

      Kuldeep Chaudhary, M. Bayani Cardenas, Wen Deng and Philip C. Bennett

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20099

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      Key Points

      • Pore geometry factor β can predict hydraulic conductivity K
      • Hydraulic conductivity is controlled by local friction drag near pore throats
      • β is indicator of non-linear characteristics during Forchheimer flows
    34. Characterizing particle-scale equilibrium adsorption and kinetics of uranium(VI) desorption from U-contaminated sediments (pages 1163–1177)

      Deborah L. Stoliker, Chongxuan Liu, Douglas B. Kent and John M. Zachara

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20104

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      Key Points

      • Means to statistically distinguish between sediment U(VI) adsorption properties
      • U(VI) desorption well described by reaction rate/SCM models
      • Reaction rate parameters identical for size fractions due to aggregation
  3. Technical Note

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    1. Effective conductivity of isotropic highly heterogeneous formations: Numerical and theoretical issues (pages 1178–1183)

      Igor Jankovic, Aldo Fiori and Gedeon Dagan

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR012441

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      Key Points

      • Effective conductivity is studies through accurate 3D numerical simulations
      • Kef is similar to the one predicted by the self-consistent approximation
      • Kef may depend on the higher order correlations of K
    2. Influence of constant rate versus slug injection experiment type on parameter identifiability in a 1-D transient storage model for stream solute transport (pages 1184–1188)

      Adam N. Wlostowski, Michael N. Gooseff and Thorsten Wagener

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20103

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      Key Points

      • Dispersion is more sensitive using slugs than using constant rate methods
      • Storage zone area is more sensitive using constant rate than slug methods
      • Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis methods reveal information content of data
  4. Comment

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    1. Reply to comment by T. R. Ginn on “Comparison of Fickian and temporally nonlocal transport theories over many scales in an exhaustively sampled sandstone slab” (page 1196)

      David A. Benson, Reed M. Maxwell, Eileen Poeter, Hamed Ibrahim, Arianne Dean, Jordan Revielle, Mine Dogan and Elizabeth Major

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20090

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    1. Withdrawn: Controls on topographic dependence and temporal instability in catchment-scale soil moisture patterns (page 1197)

      Michael L. Coleman and Jeffrey D. Niemann

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20065

      Key Points

      • Type of topographic dependence mainly depends on soil & vegetation properties
      • Temporal instability increases if lateral flow & radiative ET are balanced
      • Soil & vegetation properties mainly determine if the dominant process changes

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