Water Resources Research

Cover image for Vol. 49 Issue 3

March 2013

Volume 49, Issue 3

Pages 1199–1753

  1. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Regular Article
    4. Regular Articles
    5. Technical Note
    6. Data and Analysis Note
    7. Correction
    1. How changing sea level extremes and protection measures alter coastal flood damages (pages 1199–1210)

      M. Boettle, D. Rybski and J. P. Kropp

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20108

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      Key Points

      • Effect of sea level rise and flood protection on coastal flood damages
      • Analytic relations for the expected annual damage and its variability
      • Universal applicability due to generality of approach
    2. Multiobjective optimization of water distribution systems accounting for economic cost, hydraulic reliability, and greenhouse gas emissions (pages 1211–1225)

      Wenyan Wu, Holger R. Maier and Angus R. Simpson

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20120

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      Key Points

      • Three-objective WDS optimization considering cost, reliability and GHGs
      • Shape of solution space formed by the objectives is a U-shaped curve
      • Location of Pareto front in the solution space and its practical implications
    3. Large-scale hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling of the Amazon River basin (pages 1226–1243)

      Rodrigo Cauduro Dias de Paiva, Diogo Costa Buarque, Walter Collischonn, Marie-Paule Bonnet, Frédéric Frappart, Stephane Calmant and Carlos André Bulhões Mendes

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20067

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      Key Points

      • Remote sensing validation of a hydrologic-hydrodynamic model of the Amazon
      • Uncertainty of precipitation and river-floodplain parameters cause model errors
      • Importance of floodplains and backwater effects on flood waves traveling
    4. Evolution of physical controls for soil moisture in humid and subhumid watersheds (pages 1244–1258)

      Nandita Gaur and Binayak P. Mohanty

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20069

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      Key Points

      • Soil moisture physical controls evolve with spatial scale and wetness condition
      • Soil was found the most dominant physical control for most wetness condition
      • Entropy method could be a good tool to soil moisture numerical analysis
    5. Projected freshwater withdrawals in the United States under a changing climate (pages 1259–1276)

      Thomas C. Brown, Romano Foti and Jorge A. Ramirez

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20076

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      Key Points

      • water withdrawal efficiency is improving in most sectors
      • Population growth alone will not greatly increase future withdrawals
      • Future climate change is likely to significantly increase withdrawals
    6. A stochastic model for estimating groundwater and contaminant discharges from fractured rock passive flux meter measurements (pages 1277–1291)

      Özlem Acar, Harald Klammler, Kirk Hatfield, Mark A. Newman, Michael D. Annable, Jaehyun Cho, Beth L. Parker, John A. Cherry, Pete Pehme, Patryk Quinn and Ryan Kroeker

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20109

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      Key Points

      • The FRPFM measures local water and contaminant fluxes in rock fractures.
      • We develop an equation to estimate discharges across FRPFM control planes.
      • We develop equation for maximum degree of uncertainty in discharge estimates.
    7. Effects of harvest on carbon and nitrogen dynamics in a Pacific Northwest forest catchment (pages 1292–1313)

      Alex Abdelnour, Robert B. McKane, Marc Stieglitz, Feifei Pan and Yiwei Cheng

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012WR012994

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      Key Points

      • VELMA is an easy to use, spatially distributed eco-hydrology model
      • Post-harvest losses of nutrients consist primarily of DIN
    8. Origin of hysteresis in bed form response to unsteady flows (pages 1314–1333)

      Raleigh L. Martin and Douglas J. Jerolmack

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20093

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      Key Points

      • Collision and merger grows bedforms; cannibalizing secondary features decay them
      • Equilibrium bedform sizes and celerities determine adjustment time scales
      • Hysteresis occurs if discharge changes faster than bedform adjustment time scale
    9. Data assimilation and parameter estimation via ensemble Kalman filter coupled with stochastic moment equations of transient groundwater flow (pages 1334–1344)

      M. Panzeri, M. Riva, A. Guadagnini and S. P. Neuman

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20113

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      Key Points

      • Embedding stochastic moment equations of flow in ensemble Kalman filter
      • Avoiding need for Monte Carlo simulations in ensemble Kalman filter
      • Avoiding need for batch inversion of Moment Equations
    10. Solute transport modeling using morphological parameters of step-pool reaches (pages 1345–1359)

      Mario A. Jiménez and Ellen Wohl

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20102

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      Key Points

      • Planform of step-pool morphologies exhibits scaling invariance
      • Stream bedforms depend on step formation processes thus exhibiting multiscaling
      • Dispersion in step-pool reaches correlates with instream geometric variability
    11. A nonparametric kernel regression model for downscaling multisite daily precipitation in the Mahanadi basin (pages 1360–1385)

      S. Kannan and Subimal Ghosh

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20118

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      Key Points

      • Multi-site statistical downscaling to preserve spatio-temporal variability
      • Simulations with kernel regression
      • Climate Change Impacts on rainfall in Mahanadi Basin, India
    12. Seawater circulation in sediments driven by interactions between seabed topography and fluid density (pages 1386–1399)

      L. F. Konikow, M. Akhavan, C. D. Langevin, H. A. Michael and A. H. Sawyer

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20121

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      Key Points

      • Seawater recirculation can be driven by seabed topography-density interaction
      • Topography-density seawater circulation occurs under limited conditions
      • Topography-density seawater circulation typically comprises 20-30% of SGD
    13. Time-varying sensitivity analysis clarifies the effects of watershed model formulation on model behavior (pages 1400–1414)

      J. D. Herman, P. M. Reed and T. Wagener

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20124

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      Key Points

      • Dominant model processes can be counterintuitive as model complexity increases
      • Hydrologic modeling benefits from diagnosing time-varying controls
      • Comparing controls across models shows how model formulation affects behavior
    14. Comparison of techniques for estimating evaporation from an irrigation water storage (pages 1415–1428)

      D. L. McJannet, F. J. Cook and S. Burn

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20125

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      Key Points

      • Techniques for estimating evaporation were compared to measured values
      • Penman-Monteith model performed well with local site data and wind function
      • Model predictions are sensitive to local variation in meteorological data
    15. Mixing and circulation at the confluence of two rivers entering a meandering reservoir (pages 1429–1445)

      Cintia L. Ramón, Andrea B. Hoyer, Joan Armengol, Josep Dolz and Francisco J. Rueda

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20131

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      Key Points

      • Factors controlling the spatial distribution of two confluent rivers are studied
      • Factors controlling mixing of two confluent rivers are studied
    16. Seasonal small-scale spatial variability in alpine snowfall and snow accumulation (pages 1446–1457)

      D. E. Scipión, R. Mott, M. Lehning, M. Schneebeli and A. Berne

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20135

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      Key Points

      • Data are based on weather radar and laser scans
      • Spatial variability of snowfall and snow accumulation variability
      • Snow accumulation variability is governed by small-processes close to the ground
    17. Balancing practicality and hydrologic realism: A parsimonious approach for simulating rapid groundwater recharge via unsaturated-zone preferential flow (pages 1458–1465)

      Benjamin B. Mirus and John R. Nimmo

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20141

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      Key Points

      • Unsaturated preferential flow is generally underestimated
      • A simple model can simulate rapid water table fluctuations
      • The model provides useful flux estimates and requires limited data inputs
    18. Probabilistic description of crop development and irrigation water requirements with stochastic rainfall (pages 1466–1482)

      Giulia Vico and Amilcare Porporato

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20134

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      Key Points

      • Crop development and irrigation are idealized as dichotomic Markov processes
      • Probability density functions of yield and irrigation are obtained analytically
      • They are a tool for decision making under uncertainty
  2. Regular Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Regular Article
    4. Regular Articles
    5. Technical Note
    6. Data and Analysis Note
    7. Correction
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Making the distinction between water scarcity and drought using an observation-modeling framework (pages 1483–1502)

      A. F. Van Loon and H. A. J. Van Lanen

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20147

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      Key Points

      • Observation-modeling framework is needed to discern water scarcity and drought.
      • Anomaly analysis on observed and naturalized time series allows quantification.
      • In a case study, water scarcity had a four times higher impact than drought.
  3. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Regular Article
    4. Regular Articles
    5. Technical Note
    6. Data and Analysis Note
    7. Correction
    1. Age distributions and dynamically changing hydrologic systems: Exploring topography-driven flow (pages 1503–1522)

      J. D. Gomez and J. L. Wilson

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20127

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      Key Points

      • Age distributions evolve over time under transient flow conditions
      • Transient flow leads to the emergence of new characteristic time scales in ADs
      • Dynamic ADs impact the biogeochemical evolution of water in watersheds and HZs
    2. Quantifying uncertainty sources in an ensemble of hydrological climate-impact projections (pages 1523–1536)

      T. Bosshard, M. Carambia, K. Goergen, S. Kotlarski, P. Krahe, M. Zappa and C. Schär

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011533

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      Key Points

      • ANOVA method applied to climate-impact modeling
      • Detailed assessment of changes in water balance quantities due to climate change
      • Interactions of uncertainty sources
    3. A probabilistic derivation of the exponential-like distribution of bed load particle velocities (pages 1537–1551)

      David Jon Furbish and Mark W. Schmeeckle

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20074

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      Key Points

      • The bed load particle velocity distribution derives from statistical mechanics.
      • The particle velocity distribution is exponential-like.
      • The particle velocity distribution emerges from LES and DEM simulations.
    4. Reverse water-level change during interference slug tests in fractured rock (pages 1552–1567)

      Trever Z. Slack, Lawrence C. Murdoch, Leonid N. Germanovich and David B. Hisz

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20095

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      Key Points

      • Reverse water level changes occur during slug tests in rock.
      • RWC results from coupling between pressure change and deformation.
      • RWC can be of the same magnitude as the expected pressure response.
    5. Impact of India's watershed development programs on biomass productivity (pages 1568–1580)

      R. S. Bhalla, K. V. Devi Prasad and Neil W. Pelkey

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20133

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      Key Points

      • Watershed guidelines in India fail to increase biomass productivities
      • Guidelines depart from restoration by overemphasising poverty alleviation
      • Guidelines need to adopt a scientific watershed restoration centric approach
    6. Seasonal simulation of drifting snow sublimation in Alpine terrain (pages 1581–1590)

      Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Rebecca Mott and Michael Lehning

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20137

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      Key Points

      • Seasonal drifting snow sublimation in Alpine terrain is small
    7. Spatial scale of land-use impacts on riverine drinking source water quality (pages 1591–1601)

      Tim Hurley and Asit Mazumder

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20154

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      Key Points

      • Microbial water quality most closely related to local landuse
      • Organic carbon concentrations only associated with entire watershed landuse
      • Work supports watershed scale management to protect drinking water sources
    8. Evaporation rates across a convective air boundary layer are dominated by diffusion (pages 1602–1610)

      E. Haghighi, E. Shahraeeni, P. Lehmann and D. Or

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20166

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      Key Points

      • The contributions of diffusion and advection to evaporative flux are quantified
      • Diffusion dominates evaporation flux from partially wet surfaces
      • Surface water content-dependent evaporative resistance expression is developed
    9. Influence of spatial temperature estimation method in ecohydrologic modeling in the Western Oregon Cascades (pages 1611–1624)

      Elizabeth S. Garcia, Christina L. Tague and Janet S. Choate

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20140

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      Key Points

      • Surface temperature interpolation method effects ecohydrologic modeling
      • Temperature interpolation strategy influences soil parameter calibration
      • Improved temperature lapse rates increase estimates of net primary productivity
    10. Controls on topographic dependence and temporal instability in catchment-scale soil moisture patterns (pages 1625–1642)

      Michael L. Coleman and Jeffrey D. Niemann

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20159

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      Key Points

      • Type of topographic dependence mainly depends on soil & vegetation properties
      • Temporal instability increases if lateral flow & radiative ET are balanced
      • Soil & vegetation properties mainly determine if the dominant process changes
    11. Relative magnitudes of sources of uncertainty in assessing climate change impacts on water supply security for the southern Adelaide water supply system (pages 1643–1667)

      F. L. Paton, H. R. Maier and G. C. Dandy

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20153

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      Key Points

      • Characterizing uncertainty for climate change impacted water supply security
      • Developing a water supply security scenario-based sensitivity approach
      • Illustrating the planning value of the approach using a real-life case study
    12. Traveling wave solution of the Boussinesq equation for groundwater flow in horizontal aquifers (pages 1668–1679)

      H. A. Basha

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20168

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      Key Points

      • Simplified model of the water table response to transient stream level changes
      • Algebraic equations for the stream-aquifer exchange flow rates and volumes
      • An improved working relationship for aquifer parameter estimation
    13. Incorporating uncertainty of distribution parameters due to sampling errors in flood-damage-reduction project evaluation (pages 1680–1692)

      Hsin-Ting Su and Yeou-Koung Tung

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20116

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      Key Points

      • A decision making framework considering the epistemic uncertainty is proposed.
      • The effects of sample size on potential risk of alternatives and ranking result.
      • The ranking of project alternatives can be changed by adjusting the sample size.
    14. Imaging high stage river-water intrusion into a contaminated aquifer along a major river corridor using 2-D time-lapse surface electrical resistivity tomography (pages 1693–1708)

      E. L. Wallin, T. C. Johnson, W. J. Greenwood and J. M. Zachara

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20119

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      Key Points

      • Inland high-stage river water intrusion is imaged using time-lapse ERT.
      • Transient water-table elevation constraints enable accurate imaging.
      • River water intrusion is dominated by preferred flow pathways.
    15. Solute transport in fractured rocks with stagnant water zone and rock matrix composed of different geological layers—Model development and simulations (pages 1709–1727)

      Batoul Mahmoudzadeh, Longcheng Liu, Luis Moreno and Ivars Neretnieks

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20132

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      Key Points

      • A model is developed to describe solute transport in channels in fractures
      • The analytical solution to the Laplace-transformed concentration is derived
      • Simulations show that diffusion into stagnant water is important
  4. Technical Note

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Regular Article
    4. Regular Articles
    5. Technical Note
    6. Data and Analysis Note
    7. Correction
    1. Theoretical error convergence of limited forecast horizon in optimal reservoir operating decisions (pages 1728–1734)

      Gene Jiing-Yun You and Cheng-Wei Yu

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20114

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      Key Points

      • Analyzing the error bound with a limited forecast for stochastic dynamic problem
      • Proposing a method to measure the error bound according to terminal condition
      • Deriving a convergence rate to evaluate
    2. Analytical relationship between Gaussian and transformed-Gaussian spatially distributed fields (pages 1735–1740)

      Rulan Gong, Claus P. Haslauer, Yiming Chen and Jian Luo

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20143

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      Key Points

      • A transformation of random fields usually changes the spatial correlation.
      • The correlation relationship can be expressed analytically.
      • Correlation lengths of connected fields are 60% and 38% of underlying fields.
    3. Capabilities and limitations of tracing spatial temperature patterns by fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (pages 1741–1745)

      Liliana Rose, Stefan Krause and Nigel J. Cassidy

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20144

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      Key Points

      • Qualitative and quantitative accuracies of FO-DTS surveys vary with signal-size
      • Detection accuracy of cold signals is higher than of similar seized warm signals
      • Impact of small-scale signal-size / - strength on observation is not unambiguous
  5. Data and Analysis Note

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Regular Article
    4. Regular Articles
    5. Technical Note
    6. Data and Analysis Note
    7. Correction
    1. StreamLab Collaboratory: Experiments, data sets, and research synthesis (pages 1746–1752)

      Arvind Singh, Jonathan A. Czuba, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, Jeffrey D. G. Marr, Craig Hill, Sara Johnson, Chris Ellis, James Mullin, Cailin H. Orr, Peter R. Wilcock, Miki Hondzo and Chris Paola

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20142

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      Key Points

      • This paper summarizes the data collected during StreamLab06 and StreamLab08 exp.
      • Exp. designed to advance res. at the interface of phys./chem./biol. processes
      • All datasets are archived on the Nced data repository
  6. Correction

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Regular Article
    4. Regular Articles
    5. Technical Note
    6. Data and Analysis Note
    7. Correction
    1. You have free access to this content

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