Water Resources Research

Cover image for Vol. 49 Issue 8

August 2013

Volume 49, Issue 8

Pages 4531–5098

  1. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Review
    3. Regular Articles
    4. Opinion Articles
    1. Stability of gravity-driven multiphase flow in porous media: 40 Years of advancements (pages 4531–4544)

      D. A. DiCarlo

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20359

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      Key Points

      • Summary of the advancements of the last 40 years
      • Paper shows how stability is related to capillarity at the front
      • Has significance in terms of new models of multi-phase flow
  2. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review
    3. Regular Articles
    4. Opinion Articles
    1. Interpolation of precipitation under topographic influence at different time scales (pages 4545–4565)

      András Bárdossy and Geoffrey Pegram

      Article first published online: 2 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20307

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      Key Points

      • Topographical influence on precipitation depends on duration and advection
      • Zero observed precipitations can be treated as censored values
      • Interpolation with Gaussian copulas and topography is better than Kriging.
    2. Capillary pressure and saturation relations for supercritical CO2 and brine in sand: High-pressure Pc(Sw) controller/meter measurements and capillary scaling predictions (pages 4566–4579)

      Tetsu K. Tokunaga, Jiamin Wan, Jong-Won Jung, Tae Wook Kim, Yongman Kim and Wenming Dong

      Article first published online: 2 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20316

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      Key Points

      • equilibrium between CO2 and brine in reservoirs differs from nonreactive fluids
      • wettability alteration from CO2 exposure is important
      • residual trapping of CO2 can be higher than expected
    3. Paleohydrogeology of the Cretaceous sediments of the Williston Basin using stable isotopes of water (pages 4580–4592)

      M. Jim Hendry, S. L. Barbour, K. Novakowski and L. I. Wassenaar

      Article first published online: 2 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20321

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      Key Points

      • The hydrogeology of the Williston Basin was not static over geologic time.
      • Groundwater flow was altered by injection of waters during glaciation(s).
      • The glacial recharge was from the outcrop area or collapse/fault features.
    4. Transient, spatially varied groundwater recharge modeling (pages 4593–4606)

      Kibreab Amare Assefa and Allan D. Woodbury

      Article first published online: 2 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20332

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      Key Points

      • HELP used without any attempt of model performance evaluation
      • climate change impact results from need to be interpreted with caution.
      • Improved method to demonstrate the spatial and temporal variability of recharge
    5. Nonlinear simulation of transverse flow interactions with chemically driven convective mixing in porous media (pages 4607–4618)

      S. H. Hejazi and J. Azaiez

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20298

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      Key Points

      • Nonlinear simulation of chemically buoyancy driven flows in porous media.
      • Development of a horizontal reactive interface in the presence of shear flows.
    6. Chloride circulation in a lowland catchment and the formulation of transport by travel time distributions (pages 4619–4632)

      Paolo Benettin, Ype van der Velde, Sjoerd E. A. T. M. van der Zee, Andrea Rinaldo and Gianluca Botter

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20309

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      Key Points

      • validity of exact solutions of travel time distributions and related transport
      • coupling of flow and transport attributes
      • comparative study of chloride flux concentrations and theoretical predictions
    7. Threshold modeling of extreme spatial rainfall (pages 4633–4644)

      E. Thibaud, R. Mutzner and A. C. Davison

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20329

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      Key Points

      • Max-stable models are fitted to daily rainfall extremes by a threshold approach
      • Threshold approach makes better use of extremal data
      • Wide range of models fitted and compared using real daily data
    8. A level set method for simulating capillary-controlled displacements at the pore scale with nonzero contact angles (pages 4645–4661)

      Espen Jettestuen, Johan O. Helland and Maša Prodanović

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20334

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      Key Points

      • The introduction of arbitrary contact angles in the level set method.
      • Validation of the developed method in idealized pore geometries
      • Simulation of capillary-controlled displacement in 3D porous structures.
    9. Using water destined for irrigation to conserve wetland ecosystems: A basis for assessing feasibility (pages 4662–4671)

      M. J. Sammonds, G. J. Vietz and J. F. Costelloe

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20338

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      Key Points

      • Floodplain wetland health is declining and watering opportunities are required
      • Using irrigation water firstly in wetlands can restore a more natural hydrology
      • At a farm scale wetlands can provide up to 20% of annual irrigation demand
    10. A data fusion approach for mapping daily evapotranspiration at field scale (pages 4672–4686)

      C. Cammalleri, M. C. Anderson, F. Gao, C. R. Hain and W. P. Kustas

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20349

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      Key Points

      • A data fusion procedure was used to combine MODIS- and Landsat-based ET maps
      • This procedure allows mapping of daily ET at sub-field spatial scales
      • Improvements in ET were obtained when rain occurred between Landsat overpasses
    11. Skill of a global seasonal streamflow forecasting system, relative roles of initial conditions and meteorological forcing (pages 4687–4699)

      Naze Candogan Yossef, Hessel Winsemius, Albrecht Weerts, Rens van Beek and Marc F. P. Bierkens

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20350

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      Key Points

      • We explore the roles of ICs and MF in global seasonal streamflow forecasting.
    12. Effects of oligotrophication on primary production in peri-alpine lakes (pages 4700–4710)

      David Finger, Alfred Wüest and Peter Bossard

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20355

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      Key Points

      • modeling approach estimates annual primary production
      • main patterns in productivity were identified
      • Shifts in the C:P and euphotic depth counter balance decreasing nutrients
    13. Variable contribution of wood to the hydraulic resistance of headwater tropical streams (pages 4711–4723)

      Daniel Cadol and Ellen Wohl

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20362

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      Key Points

      • Wood does not increase flow resistance in high-energy tropical reaches
      • Wood increases flow resistance in low-energy reaches by altering bed topography
      • Frequent floods enable greater wood reorganization, which reduces resistance
    14. Silane modification of glass and silica surfaces to obtain equally oil-wet surfaces in glass-covered silicon micromodel applications (pages 4724–4729)

      Jay W. Grate, Marvin G. Warner, Jonathan W. Pittman, Karl J. Dehoff, Thomas W. Wietsma, Changyong Zhang and Mart Oostrom

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20367

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      Key Points

      • Wettability is a key parameter affecting multiphase flow in porous media.
      • Micromodels of silicon and glass can be silanized to alter wettability.
      • Silica and glass were silanized to obtain equally oil-wet surfaces
    15. Hydraulic conductivity fields: Gaussian or not? (pages 4730–4737)

      Mark M. Meerschaert, Mine Dogan, Remke L. Van Dam, David W. Hyndman and David A. Benson

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20376

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      Key Points

      • Fractional differencing is necessary to remove correlations from HRK data
      • GPR is very useful to determine facies boundaries
      • Combining Gaussian facies reproduces the non-Gaussian profiles seen in real data
    16. Integrated modeling of flow and residence times at the catchment scale with multiple interacting pathways (pages 4738–4750)

      J. Davies, K. Beven, A. Rodhe, L. Nyberg and K. Bishop

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20377

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      Key Points

      • Consistent flow-transport models are needed to improve process understanding
      • MIPs is an integrated flow- transport model that incorporates preferential flows
      • Pathway exchanges are an important contributor to catchment residence times
    17. Collapse of higher-order solute concentration moments in groundwater transport (pages 4751–4764)

      Veljko Srzic, Roko Andricevic, Hrvoje Gotovac and Vladimir Cvetkovic

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20371

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      Key Points

      • Concentration moments collapse feature
      • Validity for wide range of parameters
      • Comparison with real field case (MADE)
    18. The configuration of water on rough natural surfaces: Implications for understanding air-water interfacial area, film thickness, and imaging resolution (pages 4765–4774)

      Tohren C. G. Kibbey

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20383

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      Key Points

      • After drainage, water on surfaces bridges macroscopic roughness features
      • Water on surfaces is largely capillary-held (not adsorbed film) after drainage
      • Microscopic surface roughness has little impact on air-water interfacial area
    19. Detailed simulation of morphodynamics: 2. Sediment pickup, transport, and deposition (pages 4775–4791)

      M. Nabi, H. J. de Vriend, E. Mosselman, C. J. Sloff and Y. Shimizu

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20303

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      Key Points

      • Modelling of sediment transport based on particles motion
      • Sediment transport is modelled to be used in modelling river bed morphodynamics
      • The sediment model is validated against theoretical and parametric relations
    20. Uncertainty estimation of end-member mixing using generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE), applied in a lowland catchment (pages 4792–4806)

      Joost R. Delsman, Gualbert H. P. Oude Essink, Keith J. Beven and Pieter J. Stuyfzand

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20341

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      Key Points

      • We propose a new method to better quantify uncertainty in mixing models
      • Both end-member identification and spatiotemporal variation add to uncertainty
      • Sampling of stored water may not adequately represent input to the stream
    21. Assimilation of radar altimetry to a routing model of the Brahmaputra River (pages 4807–4816)

      Claire I. Michailovsky, Christian Milzow and Peter Bauer-Gottwein

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20345

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      Key Points

      • Assimilation of satellite based radar altimetry to a simple routing model
      • Simulated discharge improved in the absence of in situ cross sectional data
    22. A novel approach to flow estimation in tidal rivers (pages 4817–4832)

      H. R. Moftakhari, D. A. Jay, S. A. Talke, T. Kukulka and P. D. Bromirski

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20363

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      Key Points

      • estimating river discharge for time periods with tidal data but no flow record.
      • moves the nexus of measurement away from the complexities of the delta
      • captures important climate cycles and long-term hydrological trends
    23. Applicability of the local inertial approximation of the shallow water equations to flood modeling (pages 4833–4844)

      Gustavo A. M. de Almeida and Paul Bates

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20366

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      Key Points

      • Model behaviour in steady non-uniform flow conditions was analysed.
      • Model behaviour in unsteady flow conditions was analysed.
      • Error patterns and error relations have been presented.
    24. Evaluation and linking of effective parameters in particle-based models and continuum models for mixing-limited bimolecular reactions (pages 4845–4865)

      Yong Zhang, Charalambos Papelis, Pengtao Sun and Zhongbo Yu

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20368

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      Key Points

      • Link the effective parameters in particle-based and continuum reaction models.
      • Build the interaction radius in particle-based models for reversible reactions.
      • Quantify the anomalous reactive kinetics for both the bulk and SCG reactions.
    25. Integrated uncertainty assessment of discharge predictions with a statistical error model (pages 4866–4884)

      M. Honti, C. Stamm and P. Reichert

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20374

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      Key Points

      • Input uncertainty influences the statistical properties of model bias.
      • Calibration must consider various uncertainty sources.
    26. An acoustic travel time method for continuous velocity monitoring in shallow tidal streams (pages 4885–4899)

      Mahdi Razaz, Kiyosi Kawanisi, Ioan Nistor and Soroosh Sharifi

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20375

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      Key Points

      • Estuary mean velocity is measured continuously using a new acoustic system
      • Measured mean velocity and its direction complied well with ADCP data
      • The role of strong stratification on sound propagation is investigated
    27. A general geomorphological recession flow model for river basins (pages 4900–4906)

      Basudev Biswal and D. Nagesh Kumar

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20379

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      Key Points

      • The GRFM is reformulated for Horton-Strahler networks.
      • The GRFM is modified by allowing its parameters to vary along streams.
      • Sub-surface storage distribution controls recession flow characteristics.
    28. Impacts of an ethanol-blended fuel release on groundwater and fate of produced methane: Simulation of field observations (pages 4907–4926)

      Ehsan Rasa, Barbara A. Bekins, Douglas M. Mackay, Nicholas R. de Sieyes, John T. Wilson, Kevin P. Feris, Isaac A. Wood and Kate M. Scow

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20382

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      Key Points

      • Reactive transport model of anaerobic ethanol and BToX field experiment
      • Microbial growth simulations of sulfate reducers, fermenters and methanogens
      • Simulations suggest methane oxidation is coupled to sulfate and iron reduction
    29. Influence of natural convection in a porous medium when producing from borehole heat exchangers (pages 4927–4938)

      C. Bringedal, I. Berre and J. M. Nordbotten

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20388

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      Key Points

      • Convectional effects around a BHE
    30. Managing water utility financial risks through third-party index insurance contracts (pages 4939–4951)

      Harrison B. Zeff and Gregory W. Characklis

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20364

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      Key Points

      • Drought has a destabilizing effect on water utility revenues
      • Revenue losses can be modeled and predicted probabilistically
      • Weather derivatives can provide insurance payouts to mitigate revenue losses
    31. Geochemical and geophysical responses during the infiltration of fresh water into the contaminated saprolite of the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge site, Tennessee (pages 4952–4970)

      A. Revil, Y. Wu, M. Karaoulis, S. S. Hubbard, D. B. Watson and J. D. Eppehimer

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20380

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      Key Points

      • Complex conductivity is related to pore water and interfacial chemistry
      • Surface conductivity cannot be neglected in ERT
      • Time-lapse ERT is used to monitor an infiltration event.
    32. Adjoint modeling of stream depletion in groundwater-surface water systems (pages 4971–4984)

      S. A. Griebling and R. M. Neupauer

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20385

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      Key Points

      • Adjoint models accurately calculate stream depletion due to aquifer pumping.
      • The adjoint method is computationally efficient in calculating stream depletion.
      • Standard groundwater flow codes can be adapted to solve the adjoint model.
    33. Colloid mobilization in an undisturbed sediment core under semiarid recharge rates (pages 4985–4996)

      Ziru Liu, Markus Flury, James B. Harsh, Jon B. Mathison and Carolina Vogs

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20343

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      Key Points

      • Colloids are mobilized in situ under semi-arid recharge rates
      • Deep vadose zone sediments show slow, but continuous colloid release
      • Mobilized colloid mass is only a small portion of the total dispersible colloids
    34. Incorporating probabilistic seasonal climate forecasts into river management using a risk-based framework (pages 4997–5008)

      Erin Towler, Mike Roberts, Balaji Rajagopalan and Richard S. Sojda

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20378

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      Key Points

      • Connects climate forecasts with sustainable ecosystem management
      • General Linear Models used to predict decision-relevant streamflow attributes
      • Presents end-to-end risk-based framework to support proactive planning
    35. Reshaping of the hyporheic zone beneath river restoration structures: Flume and hydrodynamic experiments (pages 5009–5020)

      Tian Zhou and Theodore A. Endreny

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20384

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      Key Points

      • in-channel structures accelerate the hyporheic exchange rate
      • in-channel structures reduce the hyporheic exchange zone
      • higher flow rate induces greater hyporheic exchange rate
    36. A new theoretical model accounting for film flow in unsaturated porous media (pages 5021–5028)

      Yunquan Wang, Jinzhu Ma, Yali Zhang, Menzhu Zhao and W. Mike Edmunds

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20390

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      Key Points

      • A theoretical SWRC model was formulated accounting for matric potential
      • The soil hydraulic model accounting for film flow in unsaturated porous media
      • The model provides reliable results for water dynamics under dry conditions
    37. Snow water equivalent in the Sierra Nevada: Blending snow sensor observations with snowmelt model simulations (pages 5029–5046)

      Bin Guan, Noah P. Molotch, Duane E. Waliser, Steven M. Jepsen, Thomas H. Painter and Jeff Dozier

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20387

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      Key Points

      • The blended SWE product is more accurate than the NOAA SWE product
      • Satellite-based snow cover depletion data improves SWE estimation
      • Sensitivity tests suggest four key sources of uncertainties in reconstructed SWE
    38. A generalized Grubbs-Beck test statistic for detecting multiple potentially influential low outliers in flood series (pages 5047–5058)

      T. A. Cohn, J. F. England, C. E. Berenbrock, R. R. Mason, J. R. Stedinger and J. R. Lamontagne

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20392

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      Key Points

      • Generalization of Grubbs-Beck test to any order statistic of a normal sample
      • Derivation of semi-analytical p-values for generalized Grubbs-Beck test
      • Application of test to frequency analysis for records with multiple outliers
    39. Hydraulic characterization of the middle reach of the Congo River (pages 5059–5070)

      F. O'Loughlin, M. A. Trigg, G. J.-P. Schumann and P. D. Bates

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20398

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      Key Points

      • Previous methods of river widths fail to account for the spatial variability
      • Water surface slopes of the Congo are more varied spatially than temporally
      • Backwater affects over a third of the middle reach of the Congo at high water
    40. Brine film thicknesses on mica surfaces under geologic CO2 sequestration conditions and controlled capillary pressures (pages 5071–5076)

      Tae Wook Kim, Tetsu K. Tokunaga, John R. Bargar, Matthew J. Latimer and Samuel M. Webb

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20404

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      Key Points

      • Influences of surface roughness and capillary pressure on brine films on mica
      • The hysteresis on both mica surfaces may be related to contact angle hysteresis
      • The comparisons between experimental data and DLVO theory
    41. An ontology for component-based models of water resource systems (pages 5077–5091)

      Mostafa Elag and Jonathan L. Goodall

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20401

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      Key Points

      • An ontology is needed to support multidisciplinary, community-focused models
      • The ontology provides a knowledge-level specification for model components
      • The ontology defines metadata needed to support community modeling frameworks
  3. Opinion Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review
    3. Regular Articles
    4. Opinion Articles
    1. A guide to good practice in modeling semantics for authors and referees (pages 5092–5098)

      Keith Beven and Peter Young

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20393

      Key Points

      • Semantics of hydrological modelling lack clarity
      • Clarifications for simulation and forecasting and treatment of uncertainty
      • Clarifications for model evaluation and falsification

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