Water Resources Research

Cover image for Vol. 50 Issue 10

October 2014

Volume 50, Issue 10

Pages i–vi, 7541–8382

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Technical Reports: Methods
    5. Data and Analysis Note
    1. Issue Information (pages i–vi)

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20481

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Technical Reports: Methods
    5. Data and Analysis Note
    1. Robust changes and sources of uncertainty in the projected hydrological regimes of Swiss catchments (pages 7541–7562)

      Nans Addor, Ole Rössler, Nina Köplin, Matthias Huss, Rolf Weingartner and Jan Seibert

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015549

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      Key Points

      • Uncertainties in discharge projections assessed using a wide simulation range
      • Robust changes emerged in each catchment despite projection uncertainties
      • Emission policy enabled significant reductions of the projected impacts
    2. Mathematical analysis of the Saint-Venant-Hirano model for mixed-sediment morphodynamics (pages 7563–7589)

      G. Stecca, A. Siviglia and A. Blom

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015251

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      Key Points

      • We provide a detailed mathematical analysis of the Saint-Venant-Hirano model
      • Imbalances of grainsize distribution induce complex bed perturbation patterns
      • The developed formulation is easily amenable to numerical treatment
    3. Estimating porosity and solid dielectric permittivity in the Miami Limestone using high-frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements at the laboratory scale (pages 7590–7605)

      Gregory J. Mount and Xavier Comas

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014947

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      Key Points

      • Petrophysical modeling allows centimeter scale estimation of limestone porosity
      • Dry and wet GPR measures also allow estimating the solid phase dielectric permittivity
      • Study shows the need for multiscale approach for estimating porosity in limestone
    4. An adaptive ant colony optimization framework for scheduling environmental flow management alternatives under varied environmental water availability conditions (pages 7606–7625)

      J. M. Szemis, H. R. Maier and G. C. Dandy

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015187

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      Key Points

      • Adaptive optimization framework developed for use in an operational setting
      • The framework showing advantages compared with long-term planning approaches
      • Ecological response increased with minimal disruption to existing schedules
    5. Bayesian inference of a lake water quality model by emulating its posterior density (pages 7626–7647)

      A. Dietzel and P. Reichert

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2012WR013086

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      Key Points

      • A proposed Gaussian stochastic process emulator of the posterior accelerates inference
      • The method enables uncertainty estimation for computationally demanding models
    6. A novel infrastructure modularity index for the segmentation of water distribution networks (pages 7648–7661)

      O. Giustolisi and L. Ridolfi

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016067

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      Key Points

      • A general quantitative approach for water distribution network segmentation
      • No resolution limit
      • Proposed approach is discussed and tested on real water networks
    7. Spatiotemporal variation of long-term drought propensity through reliability-resilience-vulnerability based Drought Management Index (pages 7662–7676)

      Kironmala Chanda, Rajib Maity, Ashish Sharma and Rajeshwar Mehrotra

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015703

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      Key Points

      • Drought Management Index (DMI) quantifies the drought propensity
      • Spatiotemporal variation of DMI helps in adapting management policies
      • Predictive potential of DMI can be used to assess the future drought propensity
    8. Effect of hydrophobicity on colloid transport during two-phase flow in a micromodel (pages 7677–7691)

      Qiulan Zhang, S. M. Hassanizadeh, B. Liu, J. F. Schijven and N. K. Karadimitriou

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015198

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      Key Points

      • Deposited colloids were detached by the moving contact lines
      • Interaction energy between colloids and interfaces was calculated
      • Capillary force plays an important role in colloid attachment at the contact line
    9. Beyond optimality: Multistakeholder robustness tradeoffs for regional water portfolio planning under deep uncertainty (pages 7692–7713)

      Jonathan D. Herman, Harrison B. Zeff, Patrick M. Reed and Gregory W. Characklis

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015338

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      Key Points

      • We advance many-objective robust decision making for multiple stakeholders
      • Stakeholders' robustness exhibits dependencies, vulnerabilities, and tradeoffs
      • A modest reduction in demand growth rate insulates against future uncertainty
    10. A dynamic watershed model for determining the effects of transient storage on nitrogen export to rivers (pages 7714–7730)

      Dingjiang Chen, Minpeng Hu and Randy A. Dahlgren

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015852

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      Key Points

      • A dynamic watershed model is developed to address the transient N storage effect
      • Legacy anthropogenic N can contribute a dominative N flux to rivers
      • Long-term fate and transport of anthropogenic N inputs are determined
    11. Parameterization of training images for aquifer 3-D facies modeling integrating geological interpretations and statistical inference (pages 7731–7749)

      Sanjeev Kumar Jha, Alessandro Comunian, Gregoire Mariethoz and Bryce F. J. Kelly

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014949

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      Key Points

      • A stochastic approach to construct 3-D geological facies models is presented
      • It is a geologically driven approach based on 2-D sketches
      • The approach consists of four steps: selection, extrusion, inference, and modeling
    12. Fully integrated modeling of surface-subsurface solute transport and the effect of dispersion in tracer hydrograph separation (pages 7750–7765)

      Jessica E. Liggett, Adrian D. Werner, Brian D. Smerdon, Daniel Partington and Craig T. Simmons

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015040

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      Key Points

      • Dispersion at surface-subsurface boundary and in subsurface is compared
      • Boundary dispersion greatly affects solute transport in integrated models
      • High dispersive flux at boundary can influence tracer hydrograph separation
    13. Quantitative characterization of stream turbidity-discharge behavior using event loop shape modeling and power law parameter decorrelation (pages 7766–7779)

      Amanda L. Mather and Richard L. Johnson

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015417

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      Key Points

      • Turbidity data form hysteretic loops with discharge during hydrologic events
      • Diverse loop shapes can be characterized using a single power law-based model
      • Parameter decorrelation improves power law model coefficient interpretation
    14. Effects of rainfall spatial variability and intermittency on shallow landslide triggering patterns at a catchment scale (pages 7780–7799)

      J. von Ruette, P. Lehmann and D. Or

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015122

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      Key Points

      • Variable rainfall patterns accentuate localized hydrologic responses
      • Heterogeneous rainfall patterns influence number and volumes of landslides
      • Prolonged rainfalls resulted in highest landslide activity
    15. With or against the tide: The influence of bed form asymmetry on the formation of macroturbulence and suspended sediment patterns (pages 7800–7815)

      E. Kwoll, M. Becker and C. Winter

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014292

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      Key Points

      • In situ measurements show macroturbulence-driven suspended sediment transport
      • Macroturbulent structures above bed forms vary in scale between tidal phases
      • Scale differences are attributable to changes in active bed form scale
    16. Assimilation of point SWE data into a distributed snow cover model comparing two contrasting methods (pages 7816–7835)

      Jan Magnusson, David Gustafsson, Fabia Hüsler and Tobias Jonas

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015302

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      Key Points

      • Evaluating methods for assimilating snow observations into distributed models
      • Assimilation can improve model skill also at locations without observations
      • Assimilation of fluxes appears more successful than assimilation of states
    17. A hidden Markov model combined with climate indices for multidecadal streamflow simulation (pages 7836–7846)

      C. Bracken, B. Rajagopalan and E. Zagona

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015567

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      Key Points

      • Stochastic simulation of flow time series with regime-like behavior
      • The method used a gamma HM and multinomial logistic regression model
      • Model captures observed statistics and nonstationary spectral variability
    18. Using a Bayesian hierarchical model to improve Lake Erie cyanobacteria bloom forecasts (pages 7847–7860)

      Daniel R. Obenour, Andrew D. Gronewold, Craig A. Stow and Donald Scavia

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015616

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      Key Points

      • Bayesian model relates cyanobacteria bloom size to phosphorus load
      • Algal bloom forecast uncertainty well characterized by gamma distribution
      • Lake Erie increasingly susceptible to large cyanobacteria blooms
    19. A drought index accounting for snow (pages 7861–7872)

      Maria Staudinger, Kerstin Stahl and Jan Seibert

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015143

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      Key Points

      • SPI concept was expanded to account for temporary snow storage
      • The SMRI improves description of hydrological drought in snow-dominated basins
      • SMRI is adjustable and allows for regional comparisons
    20. Relating soil specific surface area, water film thickness, and water vapor adsorption (pages 7873–7885)

      Tairone Paiva Leão and Markus Tuller

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014941

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      Key Points

      • SSA is related to the slope of the water content versus film thickness function
      • SSA can be estimated from water content at monolayer
      • Film thickness can be predicted from adapted t-curve method
    21. Spatial periodicity in bed form-scale solute and thermal transport models of the hyporheic zone (pages 7886–7899)

      Tariq Laattoe, Adrian D. Werner and Vincent E. A. Post

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015361

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      Key Points

      • Assumption of solute spatial periodicity in a hyporheic zone bed form model is examined
      • Multibed form solute and thermal models are analyzed
      • Scenarios where the assumption of solute spatial periodicity is valid are identified
    22. Physical context for theoretical approaches to sediment transport magnitude-frequency analysis in alluvial channels (pages 7900–7914)

      Joel Sholtes, Kevin Werbylo and Brian Bledsoe

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015639

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      Key Points

      • We test and expand on theoretical approach to sediment magnitude-frequency analysis
      • PDFs representing river flow overweight effectiveness of infrequent flows
      • Adding complexity to theoretical approach helps explain empirical findings
    23. Multiobjective optimization of cluster-scale urban water systems investigating alternative water sources and level of decentralization (pages 7915–7938)

      J. P. Newman, G. C. Dandy and H. R. Maier

      Article first published online: 10 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015233

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      Key Points

      • A framework is presented for planning cluster scale systems incorporating IUWM
      • Rain water use is not Pareto-optimal; in general, wastewater reuse is better
      • Nontraditional water sources are competitive in cost and energy requirements
    24. A new formulation for steady multiaquifer flow: An analytic element for piecewise constant infiltration (pages 7939–7956)

      O. D. L. Strack and Taha Namazi

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015479

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      Key Points

      • New formulation for multiaquifer flow
      • An analytic element for piecewise constant infiltration
      • Leakage factors for multiaquifer flow
    25. Embedded resource accounting for coupled natural-human systems: An application to water resource impacts of the western U.S. electrical energy trade (pages 7957–7972)

      Benjamin L. Ruddell, Elizabeth A. Adams, Richard Rushforth and Vincent C. Tidwell

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014531

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      Key Points

      • ERA adds point of view, multitype networks, and embedded intensity to LCA
      • Embedded virtual water flows are from lower to higher water value intensity states
      • Accountant's point of view may cause mismatch between assessed and physical realities
    26. Exact versus Dupuit interface flow in anisotropic coastal aquifers (pages 7973–7983)

      Mark Bakker

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016096

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      Key Points

      • New exact solution for interface flow in confined aquifer
      • Dupuit interface gives good prediction of toe position in isotropic aquifers
      • Lumped resistance along streambed improves Dupuit models with anisotropy
    27. Coupling ground and airborne geophysical data with upscaling techniques for regional groundwater modeling of heterogeneous aquifers: Case study of a sedimentary aquifer intruded by volcanic dykes in Northern Ireland (pages 7984–8001)

      Neil Edwin Matthew Dickson, Jean-Christophe Comte, Jennifer McKinley and Ulrich Ofterdinger

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015320

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      Key Points

      • Contrasting field-scale permeability values are upscaled to a regional context
      • Multiscale geophysics assist with equivalent permeability distribution
      • Different levels of upscaling are evaluated with finite element flow modeling
    28. Willingness to pay and willingness to work for improvements of municipal and community-managed water services (pages 8002–8014)

      William F. Vásquez

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015913

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      Key Points

      • Households with municipal services are willing to work for improved services
      • Households with municipal services are willing to pay for improved services
      • Households with community-managed services are unwilling to pay or work
    29. Improving the surface-ground water interactions in the Community Land Model: Case study in the Blue Nile Basin (pages 8015–8033)

      Di D. Wu, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, Guiling Wang, Semu Moges and Matteo Zampieri

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014501

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      Key Points

      • Highlighted the need for applying a ground water recharge parameterization
      • New parameterization improved surface soil moisture simulations
      • New parameterization affected all simulated water cycle parameters
    30. Patterns of local and nonlocal water resource use across the western U.S. determined via stable isotope intercomparisons (pages 8034–8049)

      Stephen P. Good, Casey D. Kennedy, Jeremy C. Stalker, Lesley A. Chesson, Luciano O. Valenzuela, Melanie M. Beasley, James R. Ehleringer and Gabriel. J. Bowen

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015884

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      Key Points

      • Isotopic inconsistency between surface and tap water indicates nonlocal water
      • Surface and rainwater comparisons form a joint estimate of nonlocal water
      • Affluent basins with low surface water availability are likely to import water
    31. Sensitivity of power functions to aggregation: Bias and uncertainty in radar rainfall retrieval (pages 8050–8065)

      M. G. Sassi, H. Leijnse and R. Uijlenhoet

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015109

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      Key Points

      • Nonlinear rainfall retrieval relations are susceptible to aggregation bias
      • High-resolution radar data can help to constrain aggregation bias
      • Aggregation bias can become of the same order as that of intermittent sampling
    32. Use of an entropy-based metric in multiobjective calibration to improve model performance (pages 8066–8083)

      I. G. Pechlivanidis, B. Jackson, H. McMillan and H. Gupta

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014537

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      Key Points

      • CED provides an appropriate quantitative measure of fit to the FDC
      • Complements between CED and KGE extracted flow information
      • CED-KGE achieves better performance than single or common multiobjectives
    33. Numerical study of evaporation-induced salt accumulation and precipitation in bare saline soils: Mechanism and feedback (pages 8084–8106)

      Chenming Zhang, Ling Li and David Lockington

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015127

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      Key Points

      • The interactions between evaporation and salt precipitation
      • Numerical model simulating the transport of water, solute, and heat
      • Efflorescence affects more significantly evaporation than subflorescence
    34. Spatially implemented Bayesian network model to assess environmental impacts of water management (pages 8107–8124)

      Ryan R. Morrison and Mark C. Stone

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015600

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      Key Points

      • Spatial hydrodynamic variability is important for riparian recruitment
      • Bayesian network models explicitly include uncertainties of ecological processes
      • Small water management changes can have large impacts on riparian processes
    35. Micromodel study of two-phase flow under transient conditions: Quantifying effects of specific interfacial area (pages 8125–8140)

      N. K. Karadimitriou, S. M. Hassanizadeh, V. Joekar-Niasar and P. J. Kleingeld

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015388

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      Key Points

      • Specific interfacial area depends on dynamic conditions
      • Interfacial velocity and production term show similar trends
      • Further investigation of the dynamic conditions and of all interfaces is needed
    36. Runoff sources and flow paths in a partially burned, upland boreal catchment underlain by permafrost (pages 8141–8158)

      Joshua C. Koch, Colin P. Kikuchi, Kimberly P. Wickland and Paul Schuster

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015586

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      Key Points

      • Boreal catchment runoff is dictated by soil heterogeneity and preferential flow
      • Burned slopes promote runoff and export
      • Unburned slopes promote longer-term storage
    37. Lateral subsurface stormflow and solute transport in a forested hillslope: A combined measurement and modeling approach (pages 8159–8178)

      Hanne Laine-Kaulio, Soile Backnäs, Tuomo Karvonen, Harri Koivusalo and Jeffrey J. McDonnell

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015381

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      Key Points

      • Preferential flow mechanisms control lateral subsurface stormflow in forest till
      • A two pore domain approach is needed to model the coupled flow and transport
      • Tracer data facilitate the model parameterization and testing
    38. Combining the bulk transfer formulation and surface renewal analysis for estimating the sensible heat flux without involving the parameter kB−1 (pages 8179–8190)

      F. Castellví, P. Gavilán and M. P. González-Dugo

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014950

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      Key Points

      • Often, the sensible heat flux is estimated using the Ohm's law analogy, HOhm
      • HOhm involves the canopy parameter, inline image, that is difficult to interpret
      • A method is proposed that does not involve inline image; it is an alternative to HOhm
    39. Using observations and a distributed hydrologic model to explore runoff thresholds linked with mesquite encroachment in the Sonoran Desert (pages 8191–8215)

      Nicole A. Pierini, Enrique R. Vivoni, Agustin Robles-Morua, Russell L. Scott and Mark A. Nearing

      Article first published online: 23 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015781

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      Key Points

      • Paired watersheds show long-term runoff changes due to mesquite removal
      • Model agreement with sensor network over a range of scales and variables
      • Model explains how woody plants control runoff depending on storm size
    40. A dynamical system model of eco-geomorphic response to landslide disturbance (pages 8216–8226)

      Colin P. Stark and Paola Passalacqua

      Article first published online: 23 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014810

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      Key Points

      • Watershed eco-geomorphic evolution is modeled as 2-D dynamical system
      • Higher storm frequency means more landslides, less biomass, thinner regolith
      • Runoff erosion can set flux of fines in landslide-dominated catchments
    41. Freshwater lenses as archive of climate, groundwater recharge, and hydrochemical evolution: Insights from depth-specific water isotope analysis and age determination on the island of Langeoog, Germany (pages 8227–8239)

      Georg J. Houben, Paul Koeniger and Jürgen Sültenfuß

      Article first published online: 23 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015584

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      Key Points

      • Age-dated stable isotope values of groundwater reveal a climate archive
      • Inferred climate development fits observed data well
      • Age stratification shows strong impact of land use on recharge rates
    42. Solute transport in low-heterogeneity sandboxes: The role of correlation length and permeability variance (pages 8240–8264)

      Peyman Heidari and Li Li

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014654

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      Key Points

      • Large correlation length leads to distinct stages of solute breakthrough
      • Two-dimensional ADE reproduces the BTC in HCO with lowest deviation from data
      • Correlation length potentially has stronger control than permeability variance
    43. Storm-event flow pathways in lower coastal plain forested watersheds of the southeastern United States (pages 8265–8280)

      Michael P. Griffin, Timothy J. Callahan, Vijay M. Vulava and Thomas M. Williams

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015941

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      Key Points

      • Rainfall-stream flow response in coastal plain watersheds is clarified
      • Soil type and antecedent moisture strongly influenced stream response to storms
      • Data can assist management and planning for land use change impacts.
    44. Dual-domain mass-transfer parameters from electrical hysteresis: Theory and analytical approach applied to laboratory, synthetic streambed, and groundwater experiments (pages 8281–8299)

      Martin A. Briggs, Frederick D. Day-Lewis, John B. Ong, Judson W. Harvey and John W. Lane

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015880

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      Key Points

      • Mass-transfer parameters are determined analytically from electrical hysteresis
      • Analytical parameter estimates are local and insensitive to experimental design
      • Model parameters are comparable to physically measured characteristics
    45. Use of 7Be measurements to estimate rates of soil loss from cultivated land: Testing a new approach applicable to individual storm events occurring during an extended period (pages 8300–8313)

      Paolo Porto and Des E. Walling

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015867

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      Key Points

      • Existing approaches to use 7Be for quantifying soil loss possess limitations
      • A new approach is proposed to document short-term soil redistribution
      • The approach is validated using data collected from an experimental plot
    46. Why do households invest in sanitation in rural Benin: Health, wealth, or prestige? (pages 8314–8329)

      Elena Gross and Isabel Günther

      Article first published online: 30 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015899

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      Key Points

      • Improved sanitation is used by wealthier and female headed households
      • Market prices for improved sanitation should go down to $50 USD
      • Security and health are households' most important motivations for sanitation
    47. Nonlinear time-series modeling of unconfined groundwater head (pages 8330–8355)

      T. J. Peterson and A. W. Western

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014800

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      Key Points

      • Groundwater hydrograph models cannot simulate episodic recharge and droughts
      • Nonlinear transformation of climate forcing overcame these weaknesses
      • Robust calibration required reformulation of existing time-series equations
    48. Seeking genericity in the selection of parameter sets: Impact on hydrological model efficiency (pages 8356–8366)

      Vazken Andréassian, François Bourgin, Ludovic Oudin, Thibault Mathevet, Charles Perrin, Julien Lerat, Laurent Coron and Lionel Berthet

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014761

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      Key Points

      • We produce a generalist list of parameter sets
      • Short-list calibration is evaluated on an independent catchment data set
      • With short calibration series, the generalist parameter sets give better results
  3. Technical Reports: Methods

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Technical Reports: Methods
    5. Data and Analysis Note
    1. Evolving many-objective water management to exploit exascale computing (pages 8367–8373)

      Patrick M. Reed and David Hadka

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015976

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      Key Points

      • Water management in a changing world needs transformative computational tools
      • Multimaster parallelization of Borg optimization framework has exascale scalability
      • Exascale search is transformative for large scale water management applications
  4. Data and Analysis Note

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Technical Reports: Methods
    5. Data and Analysis Note
    1. USDA-ARS Riesel Watersheds, Riesel, Texas, USA: Water quality research database (pages 8374–8382)

      R. Daren Harmel, Richard L. Haney, Douglas R. Smith, Michael White and Kevin W. King

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015191

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      Key Points

      • Riesel Watersheds are a nested watershed network with 75 years of measured data
      • Database contains discharge, erosion, land management, climatic data (1938–2012)
      • Nutrient concentrations measured in storm runoff, base flow, rainfall now included

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