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Water Resources Research

Cover image for Vol. 50 Issue 12

December 2014

Volume 50, Issue 12

Pages i–v, 9127–9782

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Commentary
    5. Technical Notes
    6. Comment
    7. Reply
    1. You have free access to this content
      Issue Information (pages i–v)

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20483

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Commentary
    5. Technical Notes
    6. Comment
    7. Reply
    1. You have free access to this content
      Subsurface lateral preferential flow network revealed by time-lapse ground-penetrating radar in a hillslope (pages 9127–9147)

      Li Guo, Jin Chen and Henry Lin

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014603

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      Key Points

      • Subsurface preferential flow was noninvasively mapped by time-lapse GPR
      • Standardized radargram differences pinpointed preferential flow location
      • Soil water monitoring confirmed the locations of lateral preferential flow
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      Channeling, channel density and mass recovery in aquifer transport, with application to the MADE experiment (pages 9148–9161)

      A. Fiori

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015950

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      Key Points:

      • A novel quantity denoted as “channel density” is introduced
      • Channel density generally differs from the longitudinal mass distribution
      • Fast channels carry a significant fraction of mass
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      Subsecond pore-scale displacement processes and relaxation dynamics in multiphase flow (pages 9162–9176)

      Ryan T. Armstrong, Holger Ott, Apostolos Georgiadis, Maja Rücker, Alex Schwing and Steffen Berg

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015858

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      Key Points:

      • Subsecond displacement is studied with fast X-ray microcomputed tomography
      • Fluid front propagates as cascade-like events that are tracked in time and space
      • Image quality of reconstructed data is improved with presented approach
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      Regional patterns of interannual variability of catchment water balances across the continental U.S.: A Budyko framework (pages 9177–9193)

      Alejandra M. Carmona, Murugesu Sivapalan, Mary A. Yaeger and Germán Poveda

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016013

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      Key Points:

      • Regional patterns of interannual water balance variability are explored
      • We introduce a dimensionless formulation based on water versus energy competition
      • Results confirmed the presence of space-time symmetry of annual water balances
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      The influence of geomorphology on large wood dynamics in a low gradient headwater stream (pages 9194–9210)

      Simon J. Dixon and David A. Sear

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015947

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      Key Points:

      • Wood is found to be highly mobile in lowland forest streams
      • Wood is shown to cycle through logjams as it moves down the channel network
      • Length of wood relative to channel width is a partial control on mobility
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      Empirical assessment of theory for bankfull characteristics of alluvial channels (pages 9211–9220)

      S. M. Trampush, S. Huzurbazar and B. McElroy

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015597

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      Key Points:

      • Bankfull shear stress varies continuously with grain size across transport mode
      • An empirical relation for depth, slope, and grain size is used as closure
      • This framework applies to modern and ancient alluvial rivers on Earth
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      Technological change in irrigated agriculture in a semiarid region of Spain (pages 9221–9235)

      Jean-Marc Philip, Julio Sánchez-Chóliz and Cristina Sarasa

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015728

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      Key Points:

      • Four kinds of technological changes in irrigated agriculture are evaluated
      • Strategies combine irrigation water pricing strategies and improved technology
      • The impacts of water constraints may be mitigated through technical progress
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      Soil water storage, rainfall and runoff relationships in a tropical dry forest catchment (pages 9236–9250)

      Kegan K. Farrick and Brian A. Branfireun

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016045

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      Key Points:

      • We examined the relative importance of storage versus precipitation thresholds
      • Streamflow activation during the wetting period is controlled by antecedent soil water
      • The depth of rainfall is the most important control on stormflow generation
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      Heterogeneity-enhanced gas phase formation in shallow aquifers during leakage of CO2-saturated water from geologic sequestration sites (pages 9251–9266)

      Michael R. Plampin, Rune N. Lassen, Toshihiro Sakaki, Mark L. Porter, Rajesh J. Pawar, Karsten H. Jensen and Tissa H. Illangasekare

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015715

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      Key Points:

      • Heterogeneity enhances gas evolution within a predictable range of conditions
      • Transitions from high to low permeability significantly affect gas evolution
      • Transitions from low to high permeability do not usually affect gas evolution
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      A two stage Bayesian stochastic optimization model for cascaded hydropower systems considering varying uncertainty of flow forecasts (pages 9267–9286)

      Wei Xu, Chi Zhang, Yong Peng, Guangtao Fu and Huicheng Zhou

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015181

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      Key Points:

      • Two stage BSDP is developed
      • Considering varying levels of forecast uncertainty improves performance
      • Benefit reduction from use of longer inflow forecasts is mitigated
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      The influence of spatially variable stream hydraulics on reach scale transient storage modeling (pages 9287–9299)

      Noah M. Schmadel, Bethany T. Neilson, Justin E. Heavilin, David K. Stevens and Anders Wörman

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015440

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      Key Points:

      • Stream hydraulics are estimated spatially from imagery
      • Changes in model predictions began to diminish at scales of spatial correlation
      • Moment solutions provide a measure to determine appropriate reach segmentation
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      Functional approach to exploring climatic and landscape controls of runoff generation: 1. Behavioral constraints on runoff volume (pages 9300–9322)

      Hong-Yi Li, Murugesu Sivapalan, Fuqiang Tian and Ciaran Harman

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016307

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      Key Points:

      • Functional similarity dimensionless numbers identified for water balance
      • Commonality of Dunne diagram and Budyko curve
      • Codependence amongst climate, soil, and topography
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      Functional approach to exploring climatic and landscape controls on runoff generation: 2 Timing of runoff storm response (pages 9323–9342)

      Hong-Yi Li and Murugesu Sivapalan

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016308

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      Key Points:

      • CIRF to examine travel time of different runoff components
      • Common shape of CIRF explained by size of contributing areas
      • Change of contributing areas quantified with a dimensionless drainage index
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      Pore-scale study of dissolution-induced changes in hydrologic properties of rocks with binary minerals (pages 9343–9365)

      Li Chen, Qinjun Kang, Hari S. Viswanathan and Wen-Quan Tao

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015646

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      Key Points:

      • A pore-scale model for reactive transport based on the Lattice Boltzmann method
      • Dissolution-induced changes in hydrologic properties of porous media are studied
      • Effects of undissolved minerals are emphasized
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      Ecogeomorphic feedbacks and flood loss of riparian tree seedlings in meandering channel experiments (pages 9366–9384)

      Li Kui, John C. Stella, Anne Lightbody and Andrew C. Wilcox

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015719

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      Key Points:

      • Riparian plant structure and density influence local sedimentation pattern
      • Flood-induced plant loss is mediated by hydraulic conditions and plant traits
      • Ecogeomorphic feedbacks begin at an early stage of ecosystem development
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      An integrated modeling framework for exploring flow regime and water quality changes with increasing biofuel crop production in the U.S. Corn Belt (pages 9385–9404)

      Mary A. Yaeger, Mashor Housh, Ximing Cai and Murugesu Sivapalan

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015700

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      Key Points:

      • Reciprocal feedbacks between human and natural systems are modeled
      • Biofuel-water interactions are nonlinear
      • Corn Belt biofuel development involves land, water, and economic tradeoffs
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      The daily mean zero-flux plane during soil-controlled evaporation: A Green's function approach (pages 9405–9413)

      Wilfried Brutsaert

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016111

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      Key Points:

      • The zero-flux plane depth remains relatively invariant during this process
      • Daily mean evaporation from drying soil behaves like a linear diffusion process
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      Inverse modeling of geochemical and mechanical compaction in sedimentary basins through Polynomial Chaos Expansion (pages 9414–9431)

      G. Porta, L. Tamellini, V. Lever and M. Riva

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015838

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      Key Points:

      • An inverse modeling procedure for large-scale basin compaction is established
      • Quality of parameter estimation is improved through Sobol indices analysis
      • Characterization greatly benefits by joint use of porosity and temperature data
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      Root zone salinity and sodicity under seasonal rainfall due to feedback of decreasing hydraulic conductivity (pages 9432–9446)

      S. E. A. T. M. van der Zee, S. H. H. Shah and R. W. Vervoort

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015208

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      Key Points:

      • The rate of change of ESP is slower than for C
      • For seasonal climates and full FB, the long-term ESP becomes smaller
      • For Poisson climate and elevated ESP, the reduction of Ks is insignificant
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      Sensitivity of snowpack storage to precipitation and temperature using spatial and temporal analog models (pages 9447–9462)

      Charles H. Luce, Viviana Lopez-Burgos and Zachary Holden

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014844

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      Key Points:

      • Different inference paths for climate effects on snow have different outcomes
      • Season average P and T predict April 1 SWE and snow residence time well
      • Snowpack sensitivity to climate greater than previously thought in some areas
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      Heat and mass transport during a groundwater replenishment trial in a highly heterogeneous aquifer (pages 9463–9483)

      Simone Seibert, Henning Prommer, Adam Siade, Brett Harris, Mike Trefry and Michael Martin

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015219

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      Key Points:

      • Joint inversion of solute concentrations and temperature data and logs
      • Heat transport simulation in highly heterogeneous aquifer
      • Elucidated role of heat conduction between sedimentary layers
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      Model selection on solid ground: Rigorous comparison of nine ways to evaluate Bayesian model evidence (pages 9484–9513)

      Anneli Schöniger, Thomas Wöhling, Luis Samaniego and Wolfgang Nowak

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016062

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      Key Points:

      • The choice of BME evaluation method influences the outcome of model ranking
      • Out of the ICs, the KIC@MAP is the most consistent one
      • For reliable model selection, there is still no alternative to numerical methods
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      Morphodynamics of river-influenced back-barrier tidal basins: The role of landscape and hydrodynamic settings (pages 9514–9535)

      Z. Zhou, G. Coco, M. Jiménez, M. Olabarrieta, M. van der Wegen and I. Townend

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015891

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      Key Points:

      • Basin morphology is governed by competing the tidal and fluvial forcing
      • Landscape settings are fundamental in governing the evolution of basins
      • Empirical relations are affected by the presence of a large river
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      Regional frequency analysis conditioned on large-scale atmospheric or oceanic fields (pages 9536–9554)

      Benjamin Renard and Upmanu Lall

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016277

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      Key Points:

      • Conditioning hydrologic variables on spatial fields rather than climate indices
      • Multisite probabilistic prediction of the target hydrologic variable
      • Predictive skill is illustrated with a case study on Mediterranean floods
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      Falling head ponded infiltration in the nonlinear limit (pages 9555–9569)

      D. Triadis

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015787

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      Key Points:

      • New solutions are derived for infiltration under depleted ponded surface water
      • Errors in using Philip's popular Green-Ampt solution are quantified
      • A mathematically simple “converse” to the Green-Ampt solution is presented
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      Incorporating spatial dependence in regional frequency analysis (pages 9570–9585)

      Zhuo Wang, Jun Yan and Xuebin Zhang

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014849

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      Key Points

      • Exploiting spatial dependence improves the efficiency of RFA
      • Larger gain in efficiency is possible when the spatial dependence is stronger
      • Estimation could be biased if the dependence model is severely misspecified
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      Improved Bayesian multimodeling: Integration of copulas and Bayesian model averaging (pages 9586–9603)

      Shahrbanou Madadgar and Hamid Moradkhani

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015965

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      Key Points:

      • A new technique (Cop-BMA) in multimodeling of hydrologic predictions
      • Estimation of the actual shape of posterior distributions
      • High forecast skill with sufficient range of uncertainty for predictive PDF
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      Retrieval of river discharge solely from satellite imagery and at-many-stations hydraulic geometry: Sensitivity to river form and optimization parameters (pages 9604–9619)

      Colin J. Gleason, Laurence C. Smith and Jinny Lee

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016109

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      Key Points:

      • River discharge is retrieved solely from satellite imagery and AMHG in 34 rivers
      • Successful retrieval is strongly linked to channel morphology and form
      • Best practices for retrieval reach selection and method parameterization are identified
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      An error analysis of the Budyko hypothesis for assessing the contribution of climate change to runoff (pages 9620–9629)

      Hanbo Yang, Dawen Yang and Qingfang Hu

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015451

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      Key Points:

      • Error analysis of the first-order Taylor expansion of Budyko hypothesis
      • A new method for assessing hydrologic response to climate change
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      Simultaneous measurement of unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil using gamma ray attenuation and TDR (pages 9630–9655)

      Xiaohai Zhou, Jian Zhou, Wolfgang Kinzelbach and Fritz Stauffer

      Article first published online: 26 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015640

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      Key Points:

      • Unfrozen water and ice are measured in frozen soil
      • Unfrozen water content is independent of total water content at freezing point
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      Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water (pages 9656–9674)

      T. H. Skaggs, R. G. Anderson, D. L. Corwin and D. L. Suarez

      Article first published online: 26 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016058

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      Key Points:

      • The decreasing availability of water for irrigation requires improved management
      • Models are presented that permit analyses of water-limited irrigated systems
      • The models have several advantages over available alternatives
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      Climate change, water rights, and water supply: The case of irrigated agriculture in Idaho (pages 9675–9695)

      Wenchao Xu, Scott E. Lowe and Richard M. Adams

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014696

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      Key Points:

      • Farmers' responses to water supply changes depend on their water right priority
      • Climate change variations can cause substantial damages to irrigated agriculture
      • Major losses (up to 32%) are projected under future climate scenarios in Idaho
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      Integration of altimetric lake levels and GRACE gravimetry over Africa: Inferences for terrestrial water storage change 2003–2011 (pages 9696–9720)

      P. Moore and S. D. P. Williams

      Article first published online: 31 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015506

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      Key Points:

      • Terrestrial water change (2003–2010) for Africa from GRACE gravimetric data
      • Gravimetric signatures from change in surface water in lakes
      • Autocorrelation and appropriate stochastic model
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      Wavelet-based multiscale performance analysis: An approach to assess and improve hydrological models (pages 9721–9737)

      Maheswaran Rathinasamy, Rakesh Khosa, Jan Adamowski, Sudheer ch, G Partheepan, Jatin Anand and Boini Narsimlu

      Article first published online: 31 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014650

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      Key Points:

      • New wavelet-based performance measure developed
      • New measure more useful than traditional measures
      • New measure can help improve a hydrological model
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      A simple modeling approach to elucidate the main transport processes and predict invasive spread: River-mediated invasion of Ageratina adenophora in China (pages 9738–9747)

      Nir Horvitz, Rui Wang, Min Zhu, Fang-Hao Wan and Ran Nathan

      Article first published online: 31 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015537

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      Key Points:

      • We present new simple method to examine spread rate by various dispersal vectors
      • Spread by three dispersal vector types quantified by 153 subcounties arrival time
      • The extremely fast invasion of a plant species is attributed to dispersal by rivers
  3. Commentary

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Commentary
    5. Technical Notes
    6. Comment
    7. Reply
    1. You have free access to this content
      Modeling and mitigating natural hazards: Stationarity is immortal! (pages 9748–9756)

      Alberto Montanari and Demetris Koutsoyiannis

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016092

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  4. Technical Notes

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Commentary
    5. Technical Notes
    6. Comment
    7. Reply
    1. You have free access to this content
      A modified Holly-Preissmann scheme for simulating sharp concentration fronts in streams with steep velocity gradients using RIV1Q (pages 9757–9765)

      Zhao-wei Liu, De-jun Zhu, Yong-can Chen and Zhi-gang Wang

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015287

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      Key Points:

      • Accuracy and stability of the Holly-Preissmann scheme is analyzed
      • The scheme for derivation of velocity is improved to second order
      • The modified Holly-Preissmann scheme enhances the applicability of RIV1Q
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      A new method for analysis of variance of the hydraulic and reactive attributes of aquifers as linked to hierarchical and multiscaled sedimentary architecture (pages 9766–9776)

      Mohamad Reza Soltanian and Robert W. Ritzi

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015468

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      Key Points:

      • Aquifer permeability and sorption are linked to sedimentary architecture
      • A holistic, multiscale, and hierarchical analysis of variance is presented
  5. Comment

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Commentary
    5. Technical Notes
    6. Comment
    7. Reply
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  6. Reply

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Commentary
    5. Technical Notes
    6. Comment
    7. Reply
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