Water Resources Research

Cover image for Vol. 50 Issue 2

February 2014

Volume 50, Issue 2

Pages i–vii, 763–1857

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Technical Note
    5. Retraction
    6. Introduction to a Special Collection
    1. Issue Information (pages i–vii)

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20473

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Technical Note
    5. Retraction
    6. Introduction to a Special Collection
    1. Chemical osmosis in two-phase flow and salinity-dependent capillary pressures in rocks with microporosity (pages 763–789)

      K. S. Schmid, J. Gross and R. Helmig

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013848

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      Key Points

      • Salinity gradients are important but so far neglected drivers of multiphase flow
      • We extend the theory for capillary entry pressures for chemical potentials
      • The extended capillary pressure depends on salinity and temperature
    2. Characteristic length scales and time-averaged transport velocities of suspended sediment in the mid-Atlantic Region, USA (pages 790–805)

      James Pizzuto, Edward R. Schenk, Cliff R. Hupp, Allen Gellis, Greg Noe, Elyse Williamson, Diana L. Karwan, Michael O'Neal, Julia Marquard, Rolf Aalto and Denis Newbold

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014485

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      Key Points

      • Scaling distances for suspended sediment transport range from 0.4 to 113 km
      • Sediments remain in storage an average of 488 years
      • Suspended sediment travel times through large watersheds can be 100-1000 years
    3. A field and modeling study of nonlinear storage-discharge dynamics for an Alpine headwater catchment (pages 806–822)

      Matteo Camporese, Daniele Penna, Marco Borga and Claudio Paniconi

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013604

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      Key Points

      • A process-based model reproduces observed nonlinear storage-discharge dynamics
      • Streamflow responds faster than groundwater in Alpine headwater catchments
      • Hysteresis and thresholding are controlled mainly by topography and soil depth
    4. Soil moisture mapping in a semiarid region, based on ASAR/Wide Swath satellite data (pages 823–835)

      M. Zribi, F. Kotti, R. Amri, W. Wagner, M. Shabou, Z. Lili-Chabaane and N. Baghdadi

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2012WR013405

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      Key Points

      • Application of radar remote sensing
      • Mapping of surface soil moisture
    5. Analog-based meandering channel simulation (pages 836–854)

      Gregoire Mariethoz, Alessandro Comunian, Inigo Irarrazaval and Philippe Renard

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013730

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      Key Points

      • The use of multiple point statistics for object based simulations
      • A meander simulation method based on orientations with 1-D training images
      • An inverse conditioning methodology that preserves the meander characteristics
    6. Long-term kinetics of uranyl desorption from sediments under advective conditions (pages 855–870)

      Jianying Shang, Chongxuan Liu, Zheming Wang and John Zachara

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013949

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      Key Points

      • Long-term uranyl desorption is markedly faster than multirate models implies
      • Total desorbable U(VI) is important to the rate of long-term U(VI) desorption
      • A component additivity approach can estimate U(VI) desorption parameters
    7. Non-Fickian transport through two-dimensional rough fractures: Assessment and prediction (pages 871–884)

      Lichun Wang and M. Bayani Cardenas

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014459

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      Key Points

      • High-resolution fracture map is used to examine non-Fickian transport
      • The degree of non-Fickian transport is proportional to fracture heterogeneity
      • CTRW transport velocity can be predicted based on mean flow velocity
    8. Hydraulic structures subject to bivariate hydrological loads: Return period, design, and risk assessment (pages 885–897)

      E. Volpi and A. Fiori

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014214

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      Key Points

      • We illustrate a structure-based framework for the design of hydraulic structures
      • The return period depends on the particular structure under design
      • The approach usually differs from that obtained by assuming a design event
    9. Optimal reproduction in salmon spawning substrates linked to grain size and fish length (pages 898–918)

      Clifford S. Riebe, Leonard S. Sklar, Brandon T. Overstreet and John K. Wooster

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014231

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      Key Points

      • Usable spawning area is predicted from salmon length and grain-size distribution
      • Bigger salmon move larger sediment, produce more eggs, and build bigger redds
      • Tradeoffs of fish size and redd building give moderate-sized fish an advantage
    10. Continental-scale relationship between bankfull width and drainage area for single-thread alluvial channels (pages 919–936)

      Gregory V. Wilkerson, Dinesh R. Kandel, Lesley A. Perg, William E. Dietrich, Peter R. Wilcock and Matt R. Whiles

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013916

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      Key Points

      • The bankfull width versus drainage area relationship is scale dependent
      • Bankfull width cannot be reliably predicted using drainage area alone
      • Precipitation is a significant factor for predicting bankfull width
    11. Links between flood frequency and annual water balance behaviors: A basis for similarity and regionalization (pages 937–953)

      Jiali Guo, Hong-Yi Li, L. Ruby Leung, Shenglian Guo, Pan Liu and Murugesu Sivapalan

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014374

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      Key Points

      • Linking flood frequency curve to annual water balance by analyzing MOPEX data set
      • Aridity index has a first-order control on mean and Cv of annual maximum floods
      • Base flow index is secondary control on shape/magnitude of flood frequency curve
    12. Electrical imaging and fluid modeling of convective fingering in a shallow water-table aquifer (pages 954–968)

      Remke L. Van Dam, Brian P. Eustice, David W. Hyndman, Warren W. Wood and Craig T. Simmons

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013673

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      Key Points

      • First quantitative analysis of transient fingering using field data and modeling
      • Geophysics and modeling agree on timing and concentration of convective fingers
      • Fingering was caused by infiltration of a precipitation-induced brine
    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Storage dynamics in hydropedological units control hillslope connectivity, runoff generation, and the evolution of catchment transit time distributions (pages 969–985)

      D. Tetzlaff, C. Birkel, J. Dick, J. Geris and C. Soulsby

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014147

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      Key Points

      • Hillslope connectivity is controlled by small storage changes in soil units
      • Different catchment source waters mix in large riparian wetland storage
      • Isotopes show riparian wetlands set the catchment transit time distribution
    14. Flow separation and shear stress over angle-of-repose bed forms: A numerical investigation (pages 986–1005)

      Alice Lefebvre, Andries J. Paarlberg and Christian Winter

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014587

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      Key Points

      • A numerical model is set and validated to simulate flow over bed forms
      • Separation zone extent is affected by relative bed form height and length
      • Bed form shear stress relates to the extent and turbulence in the wake region
    15. Assessment of controlling processes for field-scale uranium reactive transport under highly transient flow conditions (pages 1006–1024)

      Rui Ma, Chunmiao Zheng, Chongxuan Liu, Janek Greskowiak, Henning Prommer and John M. Zachara

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013835

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      Key Points

      • Successful simulation of a U(VI) tracer test under complex field conditions
      • Relative importance of processes in controlling field-scale U(VI) transport
      • Insights into upscaling of uranium transport processes from laboratory to field
    16. On the nonuniqueness of sediment yield at the catchment scale: The effects of soil antecedent conditions and surface shield (pages 1025–1045)

      Jongho Kim and Valeriy Y. Ivanov

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014580

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      Key Points

      • The same volume of runoff can generate different total sediment yields (∼200%)
      • Erosion enhancement or impediment effects exerted by the shielding layer
      • Two time scales and three characteristic regimes
    17. The role of the ENSO cycle in the modulation of moisture transport from major oceanic moisture sources (pages 1046–1058)

      Rodrigo Castillo, Raquel Nieto, Anita Drumond and Luis Gimeno

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013900

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      Key Points

      • ENSO modulates the transport of moisture from the major oceanic sources
      • Coherence with variations of the large-scale atmospheric and precipitation systems
      • Most of moisture sources keep position and extension stationary along the ENSO cycle
    18. Modeling and analysis of evaporation processes from porous media on the REV scale (pages 1059–1079)

      Klaus Mosthaf, Rainer Helmig and Dani Or

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014442

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      Key Points

      • Coupled REV-scale modeling of drying processes
      • Concept for the saturation-dependency of the drying rate
      • Analysis of the influence of porous-medium properties on the drying dynamics
    19. Comparison of simulated water, nitrate, and bromide transport using a Hooghoudt-based and a dynamic drainage model (pages 1080–1094)

      Mikkel Mollerup, Per Abrahamsen, Carsten T. Petersen and Søren Hansen

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2012WR013318

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      Key Points

      • Using 1-D and 2-D simulations, we simulate drainage of water, bromide, and nitrate
      • On a yearly time scale, 1-D and 2-D simulation results for drainage are comparable
      • On a daily time scale, 1-D and 2-D simulation results for drainage are comparable
    20. Uncertainty assessment of hydrological models with fuzzy extension principle: Evaluation of a new arithmetic operator (pages 1095–1111)

      M. Nasseri, A. Ansari and B. Zahraie

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2012WR013382

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      Key Points

      • Proposing a new fuzzy arithmetic operator
      • Application of fuzzy extension principle with suitable entropy
      • Efficient fuzzy uncertainty assessment versus the presented methods before
    21. Bistable dynamics between forest removal and landslide occurrence (pages 1112–1130)

      Christiane W. Runyan and Paolo D'Odorico

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014819

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      Key Points

      • We examine if bistability results after deforestation in landslide prone areas
      • Bistability was observed for the deterministic dynamics
      • The randomness of landslides changed the stochastic system states
    22. Uncertainty in evapotranspiration from land surface modeling, remote sensing, and GRACE satellites (pages 1131–1151)

      Di Long, Laurent Longuevergne and Bridget R. Scanlon

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014581

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      Key Points

      • ET from LSMs, remote sensing and GRACE is evaluated
      • Water budget closure using a range of LSM and RS products is performed
      • Methods of driving TWSC from GRACE original TWSA are compared
    23. Quantifying the predictive consequences of model error with linear subspace analysis (pages 1152–1173)

      Jeremy T. White, John E. Doherty and Joseph D. Hughes

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014767

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      Key Points

      • The expression of model error is prediction dependent
      • Structural defects may be invisible during calibration
      • How calibration is implemented influences the expression of model error
    24. Basin-scale performance of a semidistributed rainfall-runoff model for hydrological predictions and water resources assessment of large rivers: The Congo River (pages 1174–1188)

      Raphael M. Tshimanga and Denis A. Hughes

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014310

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      Key Points

      • A semidistributed hydrological model is presented for the Congo Basin
      • The model adequately simulates the dominant processes of the basin hydrology
      • The paper addresses some of the challenges of prediction in the Congo Basin
    25. Predicting hydrologic response through a hierarchical catchment knowledgebase: A Bayes empirical Bayes approach (pages 1189–1204)

      Tyler Smith, Lucy Marshall and Ashish Sharma

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015079

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      Key Points

      • Useful predictions in ungauged catchments require uncertainty quantification
      • The Bayes empirical Bayes (BEB) approach pools catchments to estimate parameters
      • Results demonstrate the ability of BEB to reliably quantify uncertainty
    26. Apparent directional mass-transfer capacity coefficients in three-dimensional anisotropic heterogeneous aquifers under radial convergent transport (pages 1205–1224)

      D. Pedretti, D. Fernàndez-Garcia, X. Sanchez-Vila, D. Bolster and D. A. Benson

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014578

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      Key Points

      • Convergent radial transport is modeled in random anisotropic formations
      • Apparent capacity coefficient follows the same anisotropic patterns of ln(K)
      • This behavior is linked to transport connectivity and stratification
    27. A probabilistic sediment cascade model of sediment transfer in the Illgraben (pages 1225–1244)

      G. L. Bennett, P. Molnar, B. W. McArdell and P. Burlando

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013806

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      Key Points

      • A probabilistic sediment cascade model of a debris flow catchment is developed
      • Sediment storage (history) and triggering (climate) are key for sediment yield
      • Debris flows are simulated for a wide range of rainfall intensities
    28. A new parameterization scheme for estimating surface energy fluxes with continuous surface temperature, air temperature, and surface net radiation measurements (pages 1245–1259)

      Jing Lu, Ronglin Tang, Huajun Tang and Zhao-Liang Li

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014468

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      Key Points

      • Parameterization schemes of surface energy fluxes are simplified
      • Surface energy fluxes are estimated without calculating resistances
      • Fewer input variables are required
    29. Stochastic modeling analysis of sequential first-order degradation reactions and non-Fickian transport in steady state plumes (pages 1260–1287)

      Daniel K. Burnell, James W. Mercer and Charles R. Faust

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013814

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      Key Points

      • Solution of chemical master equation for closed first-order reaction system
      • Analytic multispecies plume solution consistent with mean of Markov chain model
      • Non-Fickian and sequential degradation effects examined for steady-state plume
    30. Systematic uncertainty reduction strategies for developing streamflow forecasts utilizing multiple climate models and hydrologic models (pages 1288–1307)

      Harminder Singh and A. Sankarasubramanian

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013855

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      Key Points

      • Reducing climatic uncertainty plays a critical role in developing streamflow forecasts
      • Hydrologic models forced with multimodel climate forecasts perform better
      • Systematic uncertainty reduction results in improved streamflow forecasts
    31. Rainfall seasonality and an ecohydrological feedback offset the potential impact of climate warming on evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge (pages 1308–1321)

      Luke A. Pangle, Jillian W. Gregg and Jeffrey J. McDonnell

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2012WR013253

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      Key Points

      • Examined the vadose zone water balance response to imposed climate warming treatments
      • Warming increased spring ET, but decreased summer ET, with no significant difference annually
      • Warming had no effect on mean annual groundwater recharge in this climate
    32. Positive or negative correlation between actual and potential evaporation? Evaluating using a nonlinear complementary relationship model (pages 1322–1336)

      Songjun Han, Fuqiang Tian and Heping Hu

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014151

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      Key Points

      • Evaluating correlation between E and Ep via complementary relationship model
      • Variability in Erad and Eaero, and wetness affect correlation between E and Ep
      • Negative correlation in arid regions, but positive in humid regions in China
    33. Incorporating dynamic root growth enhances the performance of Noah-MP at two contrasting winter wheat field sites (pages 1337–1356)

      Sebastian Gayler, Thomas Wöhling, Matthias Grzeschik, Joachim Ingwersen, Hans-Dieter Wizemann, Kirsten Warrach-Sagi, Petra Högy, Sabine Attinger, Thilo Streck and Volker Wulfmeyer

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014634

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      Key Points

      • Selecting different model options strongly influences accuracy of simulations
      • The ensemble size can be reduced by constraining Noah-MP to different data types
      • Considering dynamics of root growth results in more accurate simulations
    34. Physics-based preconditioners for flow in fractured porous media (pages 1357–1373)

      T. H. Sandve, E. Keilegavlen and J. M. Nordbotten

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2012WR013034

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      Key Points

      • Multiscale fractures are represented in a multilevel simulation strategy
      • Modeling and approximation errors can be controlled in the numerical method
      • Computational efficiency is gained by seeking inexact solutions
    35. A method for implementing Dirichlet and third-type boundary conditions in PTRW simulations (pages 1374–1395)

      J. Koch and W. Nowak

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013796

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      Key Points

      • Implementing Dirichlet and third-type boundary conditions in PTRW simulations
      • Boundaries discretized in smooth volumes and controlled via Galerkin projection
      • We can simulate dissolution of complex DNAPL pool geometries into ambient flow
    36. Comparison of Lake Ontario and St. Lawrence River hydrologic droughts and their relationship to climate indices (pages 1396–1409)

      Stacey Biron, Ali A. Assani, Jean-Jacques Frenette and Philippe Massicotte

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2012WR013441

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      Key Points

      • Long-term trend analyses revealed increase in water level of Ontario Lake
      • Long-term trend analyses revealed decrease in water level in St. Lawrence River
      • Shift in mean water level in both systems was not synchronous
    37. δ2H isotopic flux partitioning of evapotranspiration over a grass field following a water pulse and subsequent dry down (pages 1410–1432)

      Stephen P. Good, Keir Soderberg, Kaiyu Guan, Elizabeth G. King, Todd M. Scanlon and Kelly K. Caylor

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014333

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      Key Points

      • Isotopic flux partitioning separates evaporation and transpiration from bulk flux
      • Results compare well with scaled leaf-level observations and flux-variance similarity theory
      • Results differ from flux-variance similarity theory during stressed periods
    38. Chaotic advection and reaction during engineered injection and extraction in heterogeneous porous media (pages 1433–1447)

      Roseanna M. Neupauer, James D. Meiss and David C. Mays

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014057

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      Key Points

      • Chaotic advection produces plume spreading in aquifers
      • Heterogeneity increases spreading in a chaotic flow
      • Plume geometry aligns with unstable manifolds of periodic points in chaotic flow
    39. Snowmelt timing alters shallow but not deep soil moisture in the Sierra Nevada (pages 1448–1456)

      Joseph C. Blankinship, Matthew W. Meadows, Ryan G. Lucas and Stephen C. Hart

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014541

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      Key Points

      • The hydrological signal of snowmelt timing was strongest in shallow soil
      • Effects of snowmelt timing on soil moisture lasted 2–4 months
      • Advancing snowmelt timing by 2–3 weeks depleted shallow soil water by one third
    40. Connectivity of overland flow by drainage network expansion in a rain forest catchment (pages 1457–1473)

      Beate Zimmermann, Alexander Zimmermann, Benjamin L. Turner, Till Francke and Helmut Elsenbeer

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2012WR012660

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      Key Points

      • Overland-flow connectivity occurs along an ephemeral drainage network
      • Connectivity is nonlinearly related to catchment response
      • The connectivity concept could be used for catchment classification
    41. Estimating seepage flux from ephemeral stream channels using surface water and groundwater level data (pages 1474–1489)

      Saskia L. Noorduijn, Margaret Shanafield, Mark A. Trigg, Glenn A. Harrington, Peter G. Cook and L. Peeters

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2012WR013424

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      Key Points

      • Longitudinal streambed seepage flux are estimated on a reach scale
      • Surface- and ground-water data contributed to the seepage flux calibration
      • Longitudinal variability in streambed seepage flux are successfully estimated
    42. Origins of anomalous transport in heterogeneous media: Structural and dynamic controls (pages 1490–1505)

      Yaniv Edery, Alberto Guadagnini, Harvey Scher and Brian Berkowitz

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015111

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      Key Points

      • Quantitative connection between CTRW parameters and conductivities is determined
      • Dynamic controls are critical factors to determine key transport features
      • Transport is not explained only by structural knowledge of the disordered medium
    43. Near-bed and surface flow division patterns in experimental river bifurcations (pages 1506–1530)

      Wouter A. Marra, Daniel R. Parsons, Maarten G. Kleinhans, Gareth M. Keevil and Robert E. Thomas

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014215

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      Key Points

      • Secondary flow in symmetrical bifurcations causes strong near-bed flow curvature
      • A disproportional amount of near-bed flow enters the dominant downstream channel
      • Flow curvature adds a stabilizing feedback on bifurcation evolution
    44. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Surface-subsurface model intercomparison: A first set of benchmark results to diagnose integrated hydrology and feedbacks (pages 1531–1549)

      Reed M. Maxwell, Mario Putti, Steven Meyerhoff, Jens-Olaf Delfs, Ian M. Ferguson, Valeriy Ivanov, Jongho Kim, Olaf Kolditz, Stefan J. Kollet, Mukesh Kumar, Sonya Lopez, Jie Niu, Claudio Paniconi, Young-Jin Park, Mantha S. Phanikumar, Chaopeng Shen, Edward A. Sudicky and Mauro Sulis

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013725

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      Key Points

      • Seven hydrologic models were intercompared on standard benchmark problems
      • In general, though there are differences in approach, these models agree
      • Model differences can be attributed to solution technique and coupling strategy
    45. Chemistry of groundwater discharge inferred from longitudinal river sampling (pages 1550–1568)

      J. Batlle-Aguilar, G. A. Harrington, M. Leblanc, C. Welch and P. G. Cook

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013591

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      Key Points

      • River sampling allows determining chemistry of groundwater discharge
      • No assumption of groundwater end-member chemistry is required
      • Bank storage water return can be partially identified
    46. Coupled hydrological and biogeochemical processes controlling variability of nitrogen species in streamflow during autumn in an upland forest (pages 1569–1591)

      Stephen D. Sebestyen, James B. Shanley, Elizabeth W. Boyer, Carol Kendall and Daniel H. Doctor

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013670

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      Key Points

      • Stream nitrate during autumn varied with inputs of atmospheric nitrate
      • Autumn leaf fall and stormflow events affected stream nitrate and DON dynamics
      • Stream nitrate and DON during autumn storms originated from riparian areas not hillslopes
    47. Flood frequency analysis using radar rainfall fields and stochastic storm transposition (pages 1592–1615)

      Daniel B. Wright, James A. Smith and Mary Lynn Baeck

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014224

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      Key Points

      • Extreme rainfall and flood response can vary significantly in space and time
      • Conventional analysis neglects interactions of rainfall with watershed features
      • SST provides robust flood risk estimates without simplifying assumptions
    48. A hybrid-dimensional approach for an efficient numerical modeling of the hydro-mechanics of fractures (pages 1616–1635)

      C. Vinci, J. Renner and H. Steeb

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014154

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      Key Points

      • Hybrid-dimensional approach to efficiently solve for high-aspect-ratio conduits
      • Comparison of hybrid-dimensional approach and poroelastic approach
      • Investigation of hydro-mechanical effects by means of dimensional analysis
    49. The effect of saturation history on three-phase relative permeability: An experimental study (pages 1636–1664)

      A. H. Alizadeh and M. Piri

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014914

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      Key Points

      • Three-phase relative permeability to water depended only on its own saturation
      • Saturation history strongly affected three-phase gas relative permeability
      • Three-phase oil relative permeability varied with all saturations
    50. Joint assimilation of piezometric heads and groundwater temperatures for improved modeling of river-aquifer interactions (pages 1665–1688)

      Wolfgang Kurtz, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, Hans-Peter Kaiser and Harry Vereecken

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014823

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      Key Points

      • Assimilation of hydraulic and thermal data into a managed river-aquifer system
      • Temperature predictions could be improved with EnKF
      • Temperature data gave information on spatial structure of leakage parameters
    51. Detailed river stage mapping and head gradient analysis during meander cutoff in a laboratory river (pages 1689–1703)

      Bangshuai Han and Theodore A. Endreny

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013580

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      Key Points

      • Novel method to create free water surface maps along laboratory meander
      • Laboratory meander evolves through neck cutoff and free water surface change
      • Meander evolution triggers cycle of hydraulic gradient and hyporheic flux change
    52. Improved understanding of bimolecular reactions in deceptively simple homogeneous media: From laboratory experiments to Lagrangian quantification (pages 1704–1715)

      Yong Zhang, Jiazhong Qian, Charalambos Papelis, Pengtao Sun and Zhongbo Yu

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014711

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      Key Points

      • Homogeneously packed sand columns build subdiffusion varying with sand size
      • Subdiffuion has a twofold, counterbalanced effect on bimolecular reactions
      • Most parameters in the Lagrangian reaction model are predictable
    53. Urban recharge beneath low impact development and effects of climate variability and change (pages 1716–1734)

      Michelle E. Newcomer, Jason J. Gurdak, Leonard S. Sklar and Leora Nanus

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014282

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      Key Points

      • LID provides a clear benefit for recharge and urban groundwater resources
      • Recharge beneath LID is an order-of-magnitude greater than natural settings
      • Recharge beneath LID is greater during El Nino years than La Nina years
    54. Hydrogeochemical and mineralogical effects of sustained CO2 contamination in a shallow sandy aquifer: A field-scale controlled release experiment (pages 1735–1755)

      Aaron G Cahill, Pernille Marker and Rasmus Jakobsen

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014294

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      Key Points

      • Effects of sustained injection of CO2 into shallow potable aquifer studied
      • Water chemistry monitored over 305 days and effects on sediment investigated
      • Results show distinct chemical development, high Al concentrations, and sediment alteration
    55. High-resolution temperature sensing in the Dead Sea using fiber optics (pages 1756–1772)

      A. Arnon, N. G. Lensky and J. S. Selker

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014935

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      Key Points

      • High-resolution temperature profiling in the Dead Sea by means of fiber optics
      • Quantitative investigation of the thermal morphology dynamics
      • Anticorrelation of metalimnion depth to measured sea level fluctuations
    56. Mountain system monitoring at Senator Beck Basin, San Juan Mountains, Colorado: A new integrative data source to develop and evaluate models of snow and hydrologic processes (pages 1773–1788)

      Christopher C. Landry, Kimberly A. Buck, Mark S. Raleigh and Martyn P. Clark

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013711

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      Key Points

      • Hydrologic modeling data set from high-elevation, snow-dominated catchment
      • Hydrologic data set reflects enhanced radiative forcings of snowpack processes
      • Senator Beck Basin is representative of many Colorado River tributary headwaters
    57. Critical Reynolds number for nonlinear flow through rough-walled fractures: The role of shear processes (pages 1789–1804)

      Morteza Javadi, Mostafa Sharifzadeh, Kourosh Shahriar and Yasuhiro Mitani

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014610

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      Key Points

      • A criterion for flow nonlinearity (CFN model) was developed for rock fractures
      • Critical Reynolds number was defined based on the CFN model and Forchheimer's law
      • The role of shearing on critical Reynolds number was experimentally investigated
    58. Estimation of land surface water and energy balance parameters using conditional sampling of surface states (pages 1805–1822)

      Leila Farhadi, Dara Entekhabi, Guido Salvucci and Jian Sun

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014049

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      Key Points

      • Calibration free technique for estimation of water and energy balance parameters
      • Estimation of the closure relationship between water and energy balance equation
      • Uncertainty analysis guides the formulation of a well-posed estimation problem
    59. River export of nutrients and organic matter from the North Slope of Alaska to the Beaufort Sea (pages 1823–1839)

      J. W. McClelland, A. Townsend-Small, R. M. Holmes, Feifei Pan, M. Stieglitz, M. Khosh and B. J. Peterson

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014722

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      Key Points

      • Fluvial export from the North Slope of Alaska is quantified
      • River-supplied nitrogen is important for productivity of arctic coastal waters
      • Regional estimates of fluvial export support pan-arctic modeling efforts
  3. Technical Note

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Technical Note
    5. Retraction
    6. Introduction to a Special Collection
    1. Preferential flow as a potential mechanism for fire-induced increase in streamflow (pages 1840–1845)

      C. R. Stoof, E. C. Slingerland, W. Mol, J. van den Berg, P. J. Vermeulen, A. J. D. Ferreira, C. J. Ritsema, J.-Y Parlange and T. S. Steenhuis

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014397

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      Key Points

      • Burned soil was drier and had more variable moisture, repellency not changed
      • Fire increased propensity for preferential flow
      • This potential mechanism contributes to increased streamflow after fire
  4. Retraction

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Technical Note
    5. Retraction
    6. Introduction to a Special Collection
    1. You have free access to this content
    2. You have free access to this content
      Retracted: Reliable probabilistic forecasts from an ensemble reservoir inflow forecasting system

      Dominique R. Bourdin, Thomas N. Nipen and Roland B. Stull

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014228

  5. Introduction to a Special Collection

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Technical Note
    5. Retraction
    6. Introduction to a Special Collection
    1. Learning from the scientific legacies of W. Brutsaert and J.-Y. Parlange (pages 1856–1857)

      John S. Selker, Graham Sander, Tammo Steenhuis, D. Andrew Barry and William P. Kustas

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015147

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