Water Resources Research

Cover image for Vol. 50 Issue 3

March 2014

Volume 50, Issue 3

Pages i–vi, 1859–2786

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Data and Analysis Note
    5. Commentaries
    1. Issue Information (pages i–vi)

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20474

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Data and Analysis Note
    5. Commentaries
    1. Measuring miscible fluid displacement in porous media with magnetic resonance imaging (pages 1859–1868)

      Colleen E. Muir, Oleg V. Petrov, Konstantin V. Romanenko and Bruce J. Balcom

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013534

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      Key Points

      • Quantitative saturation profiles of miscible displacement are obtained
      • Magnetic resonance can be employed to estimate parameters for modeling
      • Changes in pore occupancy are measured during the miscible displacement process
    2. Species differences in the seasonality of evergreen tree transpiration in a Mediterranean climate: Analysis of multiyear, half-hourly sap flow observations (pages 1869–1894)

      Percy Link, Kevin Simonin, Holly Maness, Jasper Oshun, Todd Dawson and Inez Fung

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014023

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      Key Points

      • Three year, half-hourly record of sap flow, micrometeorology, and soil moisture
      • PCA shows offset in peak transpiration season between needleleaf and broadleaf species
      • Douglas-fir water stress response could reduce dry season transpiration at large scale
    3. Impact of losing and gaining streamflow conditions on hyporheic exchange fluxes induced by dune-shaped bed forms (pages 1895–1907)

      Aryeh Fox, Fulvio Boano and Shai Arnon

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014668

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      Key Points

      • Hyporheic exchange fluxes under losing and gaining conditions were measured
      • Hyporheic exchange flux decreases when the losing and gaining flux increases
      • Coupling between streamflow and regional gradient controls hyporheic exchange
    4. Sensitivity of watershed attributes to spatial resolution and interpolation method of LiDAR DEMs in three distinct landscapes (pages 1908–1927)

      T. Goulden, C. Hopkinson, R. Jamieson and S. Sterling

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013846

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      Key Points

      • Scale-dependent irregularities exist at different scales in different landscapes
      • LiDAR sensor capability is deficient in areas with subtle change in elevation
      • Single stream channel lengths show scale dependence with spatial resolution
    5. A risk-based approach to flood management decisions in a nonstationary world (pages 1928–1942)

      Ana Rosner, Richard M. Vogel and Paul H. Kirshen

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014561

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      Key Points

      • Traditional methods treat trend detection separate from decision analysis
      • Under-preparation risks due to failure to detect trends are ignored
      • Our approach combines hypothesis test and risk-based decisions
    6. Groundwater and surface water flow to the Merced River, Yosemite Valley, California: 36Cl and Cl evidence (pages 1943–1959)

      Glenn D. Shaw, Martha H. Conklin, Gregory J. Nimz and Fengjing Liu

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014222

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      Key Points

      • Chlorine-36 is used to investigate groundwater and surface water interactions
      • Complex mixing of source waters is observed in a large mountain catchment
      • Significant retention of chlorine is observed within high alpine catchments
    7. Patterns of regional hydroclimatic shifts: An analysis of changing hydrologic regimes (pages 1960–1983)

      E. J. Coopersmith, B. S. Minsker and M. Sivapalan

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2012WR013320

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      Key Points

      • The effects of hydroclimatic change are present in every regional cluster
      • These impacts manifest differently by region
      • A preview of future conditions may already exist elsewhere
    8. A stochastic model of streamflow for urbanized basins (pages 1984–2001)

      Alfonso Mejía, Edoardo Daly, Florian Rossel, Tijana Jovanovic and Jorge Gironás

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014834

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      Key Points

      • Stochastic model of streamflow in urban basins reproduces flow duration curves
      • Link between rainfall and urbanization used to obtain ecohydrological indices
      • Long-term transformation of green to blue water important in urban basins
    9. The value of satellite-derived snow cover images for calibrating a hydrological model in snow-dominated catchments in Central Asia (pages 2002–2021)

      Doris Duethmann, Juliane Peters, Theresa Blume, Sergiy Vorogushyn and Andreas Güntner

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014382

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      Key Points

      • Calibration results in small trade-offs between discharge and snow cover
      • Snow cover errors may be large when neglecting snow cover during calibration
      • Value of increasing the number of snow cover scenes for calibration is studied
    10. Nonparametric estimation of groundwater residence time distributions: What can environmental tracer data tell us about groundwater residence time? (pages 2022–2038)

      James L. McCallum, Nicholas B. Engdahl, Timothy R. Ginn and Peter. G. Cook

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014974

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      Key Points

      • Assumptions limit current methods for estimating groundwater RTDs
      • We propose a nonparametric method for estimating RTDs
      • The relationships between RTDs and Concentrations are highly nonunique
    11. Nutrient dynamics in an oligotrophic arctic stream monitored in situ by wet chemistry methods (pages 2039–2049)

      Lisle Snyder and William B. Bowden

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014317

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      Key Points

      • Unique diel trends of nitrate with ammonium were observed
      • Nitrogen trends driven by combined biological processing and hydrology
      • This work has the potential to advance our knowledge of stream nutrient cycling
    12. Modeling dependence between extreme rainfall and storm surge to estimate coastal flooding risk (pages 2050–2071)

      Feifei Zheng, Seth Westra, Michael Leonard and Scott A. Sisson

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014616

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      Key Points

      • Dependence is critical for correctly assessing coastal flood risk
      • Point process model is suitable for modeling strong dependence
      • None of the three methods produce satisfactory results for very weak dependence
    13. Heat flux modifications related to climate-induced warming of large European lakes (pages 2072–2085)

      Gabriel Fink, Martin Schmid, Bernd Wahl, Thomas Wolf and Alfred Wüest

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014448

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      Key Points

      • Estimation of trends in surface heat fluxes in Lake Constance over three decades
      • Increased shortwave and longwave radiation cause higher water temperatures
      • Increased heat loss by nonradiative fluxes maintain a constant heat content in the lake
    14. Water resources planning under climate change: Assessing the robustness of real options for the Blue Nile (pages 2086–2107)

      Marc Jeuland and Dale Whittington

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013705

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      Key Points

      • No planning alternative is likely to dominate across plausible future conditions
      • We present a method for generating information for the selection of robust planning alternatives
      • Downside and upside metrics can assist enhanced decision making
    15. How well do general circulation models represent low-frequency rainfall variability? (pages 2108–2123)

      Eytan Rocheta, Michael Sugiyanto, Fiona Johnson, Jason Evans and Ashish Sharma

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2012WR013085

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      Key Points

      • Large spatial variations in the skill of GCMs to capture observed persistence
      • Widespread under-simulation of rainfall persistence characteristics in GCMs
      • Substantial improvement in persistence after applying nested bias correction
    16. Stochastic convective rain-field simulation using a high-resolution synoptically conditioned weather generator (HiReS-WG) (pages 2124–2139)

      Nadav Peleg and Efrat Morin

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014836

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      Key Points

      • New high-resolution weather generator for rainfall simulations is presented
      • Stochastic rain fields with multiple convective rain cells are produced
      • Rain data can be used for hydrological modeling and downscaling
    17. Time-lapse borehole radar for monitoring rainfall infiltration through podosol horizons in a sandy vadose zone (pages 2140–2163)

      Elmar Strobach, B. D. Harris, J. C. Dupuis and A. W. Kepic

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014331

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      Key Points

      • Time-lapse borehole radar case study for water infiltration monitoring
      • Podosol accumulation horizons impede wetting front development
      • Combination of ZOP and VRP BHR methods can improve accuracy
    18. A new method for verification of delineated channel networks (pages 2164–2175)

      Zhe Liu, Urooj Khan and Ashish Sharma

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014290

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      Key Points

      • Verification of delineated channel network
      • Incision indices for checking the accuracy of channel network
      • Appropriate thresholds for delineating channels
    19. Satellite-based hybrid drought monitoring tool for prediction of vegetation condition in Eastern Africa: A case study for Ethiopia (pages 2176–2190)

      Tsegaye Tadesse, Getachew Berhan Demisse, Ben Zaitchik and Tufa Dinku

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014281

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      Key Points

      • Developed new satellite-based prediction model called VegOut-Ethiopia
      • Demonstrated application of VegOut-Ethiopia model to a recent drought year
      • Highlighted future research opportunities under evolving climate conditions
    20. Accurate vertical profiles of turbulent flow in z-layer models (pages 2191–2211)

      F. W. Platzek, G. S. Stelling, J. A. Jankowski and J. D. Pietrzak

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014411

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      Key Points

      • Analyzing discretization errors in z-layer models (staircase bottom problem)
      • Near-bed layer remapping for adequate discretization of vertical diffusion
      • Modified near-bed discretization for vertical k-epsilon turbulence model
    21. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The importance of observed gradients of air temperature and precipitation for modeling runoff from a glacierized watershed in the Nepalese Himalayas (pages 2212–2226)

      W. W. Immerzeel, L. Petersen, S. Ragettli and F. Pellicciotti

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014506

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      Key Points

      • Precipitation is variable and uniform precipitation gradients cannot be derived
      • Temperature lapse rates are not constant throughout the year and shallow
      • Temperature lapse rates and precipitation gradients are key inputs in modeling
    22. Laboratory study of gravel-bed cluster formation and disintegration (pages 2227–2241)

      K. G. Heays, H. Friedrich and B. W. Melville

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014208

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      Key Points

      • The formation and disintegration of clusters are observed during multiple laboratory experiments
      • A cluster identification tool (CIT) is developed using data obtained through photogrammetry
      • CIT is used to investigate the physical properties of clusters
    23. Universal scaling of gas diffusion in porous media (pages 2242–2256)

      Behzad Ghanbarian and Allen G. Hunt

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014790

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      Key Points

      • Universal scaling of gas diffusion is confirmed
      • Model parameters are physically meaningful
      • The gas diffusion model presented is robust and predictive
    24. Assessing groundwater policy with coupled economic-groundwater hydrologic modeling (pages 2257–2275)

      Kevin B. Mulligan, Casey Brown, Yi-Chen E. Yang and David P. Ahlfeld

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013666

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      Key Points

      • Detailed physical model was necessary to properly investigate policy instruments
      • Agent heterogeneity significantly affects policy instrument effectiveness
      • Both policy instruments benefit from a weighted system or an adaptive system
    25. A statistical approach to estimating evapotranspiration from diurnal groundwater level fluctuations (pages 2276–2292)

      Ping Wang and Sergey P. Pozdniakov

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014251

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      Key Points

      • A new approach to estimating groundwater evapotranspiration is proposed
      • Diurnal groundwater fluctuation has relative stable statistical characteristics
      • The approach is useful for analysis of large amount of data
    26. Dynamic streambed fluxes during rainfall-runoff events (pages 2293–2311)

      Sachin Karan, Peter Engesgaard and Jørn Rasmussen

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014155

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      Key Points

      • Three-dimensional streambed temperature patterns indicate heterogeneous flow fields
      • Exchange fluxes vary in response to stream stage changes
      • Hydraulic and thermal characterizations of streambed and aquifer are needed
    27. Finite volume integrated surface-subsurface flow modeling on nonorthogonal grids (pages 2312–2328)

      Hyunuk An and Soonyoung Yu

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013828

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      Key Points

      • A fully integrated finite volume surface-subsurface flow model is proposed
      • The two flows are coupled by enforcing the continuity of pressure at the interface
      • The model is discretized on nonorthogonal grids for irregular topographies
    28. Stochastic simulation of intermittent rainfall using the concept of “dry drift” (pages 2329–2349)

      Marc Schleiss, Sabine Chamoun and Alexis Berne

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014641

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      Key Points

      • A new stochastic rainfall simulator is proposed
      • It uses a nonstationary representation of rainfall
      • The simulated fields are more realistic
    29. Comparison of joint versus postprocessor approaches for hydrological uncertainty estimation accounting for error autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity (pages 2350–2375)

      Guillaume Evin, Mark Thyer, Dmitri Kavetski, David McInerney and George Kuczera

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014185

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      Key Points

      • Postprocessor approach can be more robust in practice than joint inference
      • Joint inference of water balance and autocorrelation parameters is problematic
      • Inferring autocorrelation affects parameters and improves aspects of predictions
    30. Carbon storage in mountainous headwater streams: The role of old-growth forest and logjams (pages 2376–2393)

      Natalie D. Beckman and Ellen Wohl

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014167

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      Key Points

      • Total carbon stored in a logjam relates to forest age and disturbance history
      • Old-growth forests result in greater instream carbon storage
      • This is the first study to correlate forest age with riverine carbon storage
    31. Is the Dupuit assumption suitable for predicting the groundwater seepage area in hillslopes? (pages 2394–2406)

      E. Bresciani, P. Davy and J.-R. de Dreuzy

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014284

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      Key Points

      • A Dupuit solution is compared to a full-depth solution of saturated flow
      • A criterion is established for the validity of Dupuit solutions
      • Topographic and hydrogeologic controls are investigated
    32. Straight thinking about groundwater recession (pages 2407–2424)

      M. O. Cuthbert

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014060

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      Key Points

      • A general form for groundwater recession is presented for ideal major aquifers
      • Three phases are expected evolving from linear through to exponential recession
      • Deviations from ideal behavior are diagnostic of aquifer properties
    33. Decadal surface water quality trends under variable climate, land use, and hydrogeochemical setting in Iowa, USA (pages 2425–2443)

      Christopher T. Green, Barbara A. Bekins, Stephen J. Kalkhoff, Robert M. Hirsch, Lixia Liao and Kimberlee K. Barnes

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014829

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      Key Points

      • Weighted regression reveals N concentration trends independent of flow variations
      • Flow-normalized N concentrations decreased in Iowa Rivers from 2000 to 2012
      • Trends resulted from extreme flows interacting with hydrogeochemistry and land use
    34. Constraining a compositional flow model with flow-chemical data using an ensemble-based Kalman filter (pages 2444–2467)

      M. E. Gharamti, A. Kadoura, J. Valstar, S. Sun and I. Hoteit

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014830

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      Key Points

      • Chemical data are important for constraining flow models
      • Dual estimation scheme outperforms the standard joint estimation scheme
    35. Exploring the link between meteorological drought and streamflow: Effects of climate-catchment interaction (pages 2468–2487)

      Klaus Haslinger, Daniel Koffler, Wolfgang Schöner and Gregor Laaha

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015051

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      Key Points

      • Correlation between streamflow and meteorological drought indices is investigated
      • Humid climate conditions yield higher correlations
      • Under dryer climate properties of the underground more important
    36. A streamline splitting pore-network approach for computationally inexpensive and accurate simulation of transport in porous media (pages 2488–2517)

      Yashar Mehmani, Mart Oostrom and Matthew T. Balhoff

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014984

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      Key Points

      • Predictive method for simulating transport in pore networks developed
      • Method validated with experiments and shown to be computationally inexpensive
      • Mechanisms of transverse dispersion in 3-D granular porous media studied
    37. Probabilistic prediction of cyanobacteria abundance in a Korean reservoir using a Bayesian Poisson model (pages 2518–2532)

      YoonKyung Cha, Seok Soon Park, Kyunghyun Kim, Myeongseop Byeon and Craig A. Stow

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014372

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      Key Points

      • A Bayesian hurdle Poisson model predicted cyanobacteria abundance
      • Temperature, flushing rate, and water column stability were key factors
      • The model forecasted cyanobacteria watch and alert levels probabilistically
    38. Potential of a low-cost sensor network to understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of a mountain snow cover (pages 2533–2550)

      Stefan Pohl, Jakob Garvelmann, Jens Wawerla and Markus Weiler

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014594

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      Key Points

      • A network of low-cost stations can effectively monitor the snow cover evolution
      • Knowledge of temporal and spatial distribution of snow cover is crucial
      • Impact of topography and vegetation on snow cover changes over winter
    39. Assessing variability of evapotranspiration over the Ganga river basin using water balance computations (pages 2551–2565)

      Tajdarul H. Syed, Peter J. Webster and James S. Famiglietti

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013518

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      Key Points

      • Estimating ET using water balance computations
      • Characterizing the variability of ET in the Ganga river basin
      • Identifying the hydroclimatic controls of ET variability in the region
    40. Characterization of groundwater and surface water mixing in a semiconfined karst aquifer using time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (pages 2566–2585)

      Steven B. Meyerhoff, Reed M. Maxwell, André Revil, Jonathan B. Martin, Marios Karaoulis and Wendy D. Graham

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013991

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      Key Points

      • ERT and EMMA are used to determine karst groundwater surface water mixing
      • Time-lapse inversion of ERT detects changing hydrologic conditions
      • Characterization of karst mixing with field and synthetic inversions
    41. Assessing mechanical vulnerability in water distribution networks under multiple failures (pages 2586–2599)

      Luigi Berardi, Rita Ugarelli, Jon Røstum and Orazio Giustolisi

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014770

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      Key Points

      • WDN vulnerability analysis using multiobjective optimization approach
      • Soft ranking of solutions to get multiple WDN vulnerability scenarios
      • The methodology is demonstrated on a real water distribution network
    42. Feedbacks between managed irrigation and water availability: Diagnosing temporal and spatial patterns using an integrated hydrologic model (pages 2600–2616)

      Laura E. Condon and Reed M. Maxwell

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014868

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      Key Points

      • There is a positive feedback between irrigation pumping and demand
      • Irrigation decreases low frequency variability in streamflow
      • Spatial patterns in response to irrigation highlight local heterogeneity
    43. Predictability of tracer dilution in large open channel flows: Analytical solution for the coefficient of variation of the depth-averaged concentration (pages 2617–2635)

      Marilena Pannone

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013986

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      Key Points

      • A compact analytical solution is proposed
      • The solution is numerically verified
      • The meaningfulness of the derivation is field tested
    44. Assessing the impact of model spin-up on surface water-groundwater interactions using an integrated hydrologic model (pages 2636–2656)

      Hoori Ajami, Matthew F. McCabe, Jason P. Evans and Simon Stisen

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014258

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      Key Points

      • Spin-up is required to minimize impact of model initialization
      • Subsurface storage is a good measure of system-wide equilibrium
      • Spin-up functions can be used to determine time to equilibrium
    45. Watershed-scale modeling of streamflow change in incised montane meadows (pages 2657–2678)

      Hedeff I. Essaid and Barry R. Hill

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014420

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      Key Points

      • Meadow and watershed properties influence meadow response to stream channel incision
      • Postincision streamflow change is influenced by changes in the groundwater system
      • Postincision streamflow change is sensitive to change in evapotranspiration
    46. Estimating the human contribution to groundwater depletion in the Middle East, from GRACE data, land surface models, and well observations (pages 2679–2692)

      Gholamreza Joodaki, John Wahr and Sean Swenson

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014633

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      Key Point

      • Using satellite gravity data for groundwater monitoring across the Middle East
    47. Real-time global flood estimation using satellite-based precipitation and a coupled land surface and routing model (pages 2693–2717)

      Huan Wu, Robert F. Adler, Yudong Tian, George J. Huffman, Hongyi Li and JianJian Wang

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014710

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      Key Points

      • Coupled VIC with a physically based routing model for real-time flood estimation
      • GFMS gives promising flood estimation with satellite-based precipitation
      • Evaluation indicates improvements needed in precipitation and hydrologic model
    48. Adsorption and capillary condensation in porous media as a function of the chemical potential of water in carbon dioxide (pages 2718–2731)

      Jason E. Heath, Charles R. Bryan, Edward N. Matteo, Thomas A. Dewers, Yifeng Wang and Cédric J. Sallaberry

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013728

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      Key Points

      • We present water adsorption and capillary condensation for the carbon dioxide-water system
      • Less water pore saturation for carbon dioxide storage sites than vadose zone
      • Reservoir rocks require relatively high water activities for imbibition snap-off
    49. Three-dimensional imaging of subsurface structural patterns using quantitative large-scale multiconfiguration electromagnetic induction data (pages 2732–2748)

      Christian von Hebel, Sebastian Rudolph, Achim Mester, Johan A. Huisman, Pramod Kumbhar, Harry Vereecken and Jan van der Kruk

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014864

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      Key Points

      • Multiconfiguration EMI imaging returns quasi 3-D EC variations
      • Low-resolution lateral grain size distribution maps confirm lateral EC values
      • Formerly obtained ERT transects confirm lateral and vertical EC values
  3. Data and Analysis Note

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Data and Analysis Note
    5. Commentaries
    1. LiDAR-derived snowpack data sets from mixed conifer forests across the Western United States (pages 2749–2755)

      A. A. Harpold, Q. Guo, N. Molotch, P. D. Brooks, R. Bales, J. C. Fernandez-Diaz, K. N. Musselman, T. L. Swetnam, P. Kirchner, M. W. Meadows, J. Flanagan and R. Lucas

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013935

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      Key Points

      • LiDAR-derived snow depth from Western United States sites are publicly available
      • Research catchments had variable forest properties and snow depths among sites
      • LiDAR-derived snow depths were comparable to in situ measurements
  4. Commentaries

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Data and Analysis Note
    5. Commentaries

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