Water Resources Research

Cover image for Vol. 50 Issue 6

June 2014

Volume 50, Issue 6

Pages i–vi, 4545–5377

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Technical Notes
    5. Commentaries
    6. Comments and Replies
    1. Issue Information (pages i–vi)

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20477

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Technical Notes
    5. Commentaries
    6. Comments and Replies
    1. Insights into the physical processes controlling correlations between snow distribution and terrain properties (pages 4545–4563)

      Brian T. Anderson, James P. McNamara, Hans-Peter Marshall and Alejandro N. Flores

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013714

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      Key Points

      • Temporal observations of variability help explain ambiguous correlations
      • Interaction between differential accumulation and ablation controls snow distribution
    2. Bayesian hierarchical approach and geophysical data sets for estimation of reactive facies over plume scales (pages 4564–4584)

      Haruko M. Wainwright, Jinsong Chen, Douglas S. Sassen and Susan S. Hubbard

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013842

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      Key Points

      • Bayesian model to integrate multiscale data, including surface seismic data
      • Reactive facies approach to parameterize heterogeneous subsurface properties
      • Estimate flow and transport properties along a 300 m transect at high resolution
    3. Scaling properties of tidal networks (pages 4585–4602)

      Mirian Jiménez, Sonia Castanedo, Zeng Zhou, Giovanni Coco, Raúl Medina and Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015006

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      Key Points

      • Tidal network structure derived from estuarine hydrodynamics
      • Tidal networks evolve toward a minimum energy expenditure state
      • Scale behavior is found in accumulated drainage area and volume
    4. Lateral inflows, stream-groundwater exchange, and network geometry influence stream water composition (pages 4603–4623)

      John Mallard, Brian McGlynn and Tim Covino

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014944

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      Key Points

      • Hydrologic turnover is induced by gains and losses along a stream network
      • Watershed and network shape create distinct patterns of hydrologic turnover
      • Hydrologic turnover modifies watershed signals
    5. Application of multiobjective optimization to scheduling capacity expansion of urban water resource systems (pages 4624–4642)

      Mohammad Mortazavi-Naeini, George Kuczera and Lijie Cui

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014569

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      Key Points

      • A new formulation for the scheduling capacity expansion problem for urban water
      • Use of multiobjective optimization resolves social equity problems
      • Demonstrate benefit in jointly optimizing operational and infrastructure options
    6. Hydraulic and thermal effects of in-stream structure-induced hyporheic exchange across a range of hydraulic conductivities (pages 4643–4661)

      Garrett T. Menichino and Erich T. Hester

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014758

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      Key Points

      • Hyporheic exchange is strongly controlled by hydraulic conductivity (K)
      • Weir-induced hyporheic water and heat exchange vary most at high K
      • Largest thermal effect of exchange is increased subsurface heterogeneity
    7. A mechanistic modeling and data assimilation framework for Mojave Desert ecohydrology (pages 4662–4685)

      Gene-Hua Crystal Ng, David R. Bedford and David M. Miller

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015281

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      Key Points

      • Desert plant and soil properties are incorporated in an ecohydrological model
      • A “multisite loop EnKF” procedure is developed for estimating model parameters
      • Model and data assimilation are demonstrated with Mojave Desert synthetic data
    8. Individual and coupled influences of AMO and ENSO on regional precipitation characteristics and extremes (pages 4686–4709)

      Aneesh Goly and Ramesh S. V. Teegavarapu

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014540

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      Key Points

      • Understand individual and combined influences of oscillations on precipitation
      • Several indices to assess changes in precipitation characteristics
      • Varying precipitation extremes and implications on flood control
    9. Inference of permeability heterogeneity from joint inversion of transient flow and temperature data (pages 4710–4725)

      Zhishuai Zhang, Behnam Jafarpour and Lianlin Li

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013801

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      Key Points

      • Joint inversion of flow and temperature for high resolution aquifer connectivity
      • Fluid temperature can reveal aquifer layering and permeability with depth
      • Coupled heat and flow equation and adjoint model for Bayesian inversion
    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Simulating water markets with transaction costs (pages 4726–4745)

      Tohid Erfani, Olga Binions and Julien J. Harou

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014493

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      Key Points

      • Transaction tracking hydro-economic optimization models simulate water markets
      • Proposed model formulation incorporates transaction costs and trading behavior
      • Water markets benefit users with the most restricted water access
    11. Revealed and stated preference valuation and transfer: A within-sample comparison of water quality improvement values (pages 4746–4759)

      Silvia Ferrini, Marije Schaafsma and Ian Bateman

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014905

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      Key Point

      • Benefit transfer reliability for water quality improvement estimates
    12. Hydrology and pore water chemistry in a permafrost wetland, Ilulissat, Greenland (pages 4760–4774)

      Søren Jessen, Hanne D. Holmslykke, Kristine Rasmussen, Niels Richardt and Peter E. Holm

      Article first published online: 9 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014376

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      Key Points

      • Cryogenic carbonate formation cycles inorganic carbon in permafrost wetlands
      • Ebullition is a feasible greenhouse gas emission pathway from Arctic wetlands
      • Permafrost wetlands may host elevated concentrations of geogenic As, Ni, and Al
    13. Transient pore pressure response to confining stress excursions in Berea sandstone flooded with an aqueous solution of CO2 (pages 4775–4786)

      Jackson B. Crews and Clay A. Cooper

      Article first published online: 9 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015305

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      Key Points

      • Transient pore pressure buildup was observed
      • Seismic stress drops yield transient pore pressure buildup
      • Overpressure was as high as 700 kPa
    14. The concept of field capacity revisited: Defining intrinsic static and dynamic criteria for soil internal drainage dynamics (pages 4787–4802)

      Shmuel Assouline and Dani Or

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015475

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      Key Points

      • A soil intrinsic characteristic length defines attainment of field capacity
      • This static criterion was extended to define a self-consistent dynamic one
      • Field capacity is characterized by a constant relative flux
    15. Controls on sediment production from an unpaved resource road in a Pacific maritime watershed (pages 4803–4820)

      H. J. van Meerveld, E.J. Baird and W. C. Floyd

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014605

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      Key Points

      • Rainfall simulation was used to study key controls on sediment generation from an unpaved road
      • Rainfall intensity and number of loaded truck passages controlled sediment production
      • Elevated concentrations persisted for 30 min or less following the passage of a loaded truck
    16. Deep conduit flow in karst aquifers revisited (pages 4821–4836)

      Georg Kaufmann, Franci Gabrovšek and Douchko Romanov

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015314

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      Key Points

      • Water table versus bathy-phreatic caves
      • Structural, hydrological, and chemical control of karst evolution
    17. Spatiotemporal relations between water budget components and soil water content in a forested tributary catchment (pages 4837–4857)

      Alexander Graf, Heye R. Bogena, Clemens Drüe, Horst Hardelauf, Thomas Pütz, Günther Heinemann and Harry Vereecken

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014516

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      Key Points

      • Water budget and distributed soil water content of small catchment analyzed
      • Budget closed on annual basis, short-term residual correlated with water content
      • EOF analysis reveals two patterns, hysteresis relation to mean water content
    18. Correlation between groundwater flow and deformation in the fractured carbonate Gran Sasso aquifer (INFN underground laboratories, central Italy) (pages 4858–4876)

      A. Amoruso, L. Crescentini, S. Martino, M. Petitta and M. Tallini

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014491

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      Key Points

      • Groundwater flow versus rock deformation in a fractured aquifer has been studied
      • Deformations along two directions reflect the recharge/discharge cycle
      • A 2-D stress-strain numerical model reproduces measured deformations
    19. Hydrologic dynamics and geochemical responses within a floodplain aquifer and hyporheic zone during Hurricane Sandy (pages 4877–4892)

      A. H. Sawyer, L. A. Kaplan, O. Lazareva and H. A. Michael

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015101

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      Key Points

      • High-resolution data set highlights riparian hydrogeochemical storm dynamics
      • Vertical infiltration increases carbon delivery to aquifer and hyporheic zone
      • Topography affects timing of groundwater discharge and solute export
    20. What does CloudSat reveal about global land precipitation detection by other spaceborne sensors? (pages 4893–4905)

      Ali Behrangi, Yudong Tian, Bjorn H. Lambrigtsen and Graeme L. Stephens

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014566

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      Key Points

      • CloudSat is useful to identify missing precipitation from space
      • More than 50% of precipitation is not detected by current sensors
      • Precipitation is missed mainly from nonconvective clouds and over frozen land
    21. Navigating financial and supply reliability tradeoffs in regional drought management portfolios (pages 4906–4923)

      Harrison B. Zeff, Joseph R. Kasprzyk, Jonathan D. Herman, Patrick M. Reed and Gregory W. Characklis

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015126

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      Key Points

      • Adaptive measures increase supply reliability but also add financial risk
      • Financial mitigation helps to achieve reliability and financial objectives
      • Index insurance can reduce the cost of mitigation when used with self-insurance
    22. Reactive transport controls on sandy acid sulfate soils and impacts on shallow groundwater quality (pages 4924–4952)

      S. Ursula Salmon, Andrew W. Rate, Zed Rengel, Steven Appleyard, Henning Prommer and Christoph Hinz

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014404

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      Key Points

      • Soil biogeochemistry is coupled to gas-water-solute transport
      • Severe groundwater acidification is reproduced despite low pyrite content
      • Soil water and organic C limit oxygen availability and acidification
    23. Linking groundwater use and stress to specific crops using the groundwater footprint in the Central Valley and High Plains aquifer systems, U.S. (pages 4953–4973)

      Laurent Esnault, Tom Gleeson, Yoshihide Wada, Jens Heinke, Dieter Gerten, Elizabeth Flanary, Marc F. P. Bierkens and Ludovicus P. H. van Beek

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014792

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      Key Points

      • Feed for cattle production causes groundwater stress to crucial U.S. aquifer systems
      • Methodology to link groundwater use and stress to crop types for the first time
      • Total uncertainty is largely due to recharge and irrigation application efficiency
    24. Groundwater flow dynamics and arsenic source characterization in an aquifer system of West Bengal, India (pages 4974–5002)

      A. J. Desbarats, C. E. M. Koenig, T. Pal, P. K. Mukherjee and R. D. Beckie

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014034

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      Key Points

      • The source of arsenic contamination is traced to channel-fill sediments
      • Arsenic release is associated with the decay of organobromines
      • Arsenic flushing and mass transfer rates in the source are estimated
    25. Estimating information entropy for hydrological data: One-dimensional case (pages 5003–5018)

      Wei Gong, Dawen Yang, Hoshin V. Gupta and Grey Nearing

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015874

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      Key Points

      • Compute entropy for one-dimensional case
      • Four issues of practical relevance are considered
      • Accuracy and robustness are tested
    26. Increasing life expectancy of water resources literature (pages 5019–5028)

      M. Heistermann, T. Francke, C. Georgi and A. Bronstert

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015674

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      Key Points

      • The age of references in water resources papers has been increasing over time
      • Top-cited papers are very old yet still their citations increase exponentially
      • Bibliometric analyses should not be left to the bibliometricians
    27. Calibration and correction procedures for cosmic-ray neutron soil moisture probes located across Australia (pages 5029–5043)

      Aaron Hawdon, David McJannet and Jim Wallace

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015138

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      Key Points

      • Cosmic-ray probes estimate soil moisture across diverse soils and landscapes
      • Improved correction procedures support a theoretical calibration function
      • Differences in calibration parameters between sites support biomass estimation
    28. Improving process representation in conceptual hydrological model calibration using climate simulations (pages 5044–5073)

      Marie Minville, Dominique Cartier, Catherine Guay, Louis-Alexandre Leclaire, Charles Audet, Sébastien Le Digabel and James Merleau

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013857

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      Key Points

      • Constrained calibration is based on the AET mean annual cycle of an RCM
      • The methodology gives better validation results for most watersheds studied
      • The methodology yields reliable hydrological model runoff changes
    29. A practical formulation of snow surface diffusion by wind for watershed-scale applications (pages 5074–5089)

      Noriaki Ohara

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014744

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      Key Points

      • A practical snow movement equation was formulated for watershed-scale applications
      • The snow diffusion coefficient due to wind turbulence was derived
      • Theoretical extension for preferential snow accumulation was explored
    30. A strategy for diagnosing and interpreting hydrological model nonstationarity (pages 5090–5113)

      Seth Westra, Mark Thyer, Michael Leonard, Dmitri Kavetski and Martin Lambert

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014719

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      Key Points

      • A strategy to diagnose and interpret hydrological nonstationarity is presented
      • Time-varying parameters are used to represent model nonstationarity
      • The strategy reduces predictive biases over an independent confirmatory period
    31. Finite element formulation of unilateral boundary conditions for unsaturated flow in porous continua (pages 5114–5130)

      A. Abati and C. Callari

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014693

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      Key Points

      • Novel regularization of proposed conditions by augmented Lagrangian method
      • Novel analysis of accuracy and ill-conditioning of regularizations
      • Novel evaluation of penalty coefficient as functions of permeability and mesh
    32. A novel method for estimating the onset of thermal stratification in lakes from surface water measurements (pages 5131–5140)

      R. Iestyn Woolway, Stephen C. Maberly, Ian D. Jones and Heidrun Feuchtmayr

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014975

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      Key Point

      • Stratification onset in lakes can be estimated from surface water temperature measurements
    33. Managing flow, sediment, and hydropower regimes in the Sre Pok, Se San, and Se Kong Rivers of the Mekong basin (pages 5141–5157)

      Thomas B. Wild and Daniel P. Loucks

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015457

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      Key Points

      • Significant reservoir sediment trapping is predicted on Mekong tributaries
      • Sedimentation may not significantly reduce reservoir storage capacity
      • Reservoir sediment management could reduce adverse impacts of trapping
    34. Dams on the Mekong: Cumulative sediment starvation (pages 5158–5169)

      G. M. Kondolf, Z. K. Rubin and J. T. Minear

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014651

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      Key Points

      • The Mekong River basin is being rapidly developed, with 140 dams built, under construction or planned
      • We estimated sediment starvation with the 3W model for three scenarios of future dam building
      • Full build-out of proposed dams would trap 96% of the river's predam sediment load
    35. A dynamical system perspective on plant hydraulic failure (pages 5170–5183)

      Stefano Manzoni, Gabriel Katul and Amilcare Porporato

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015236

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      Key Points

      • Plant hydraulic failure is interpreted as a dynamic catastrophe
      • Viable and desiccated states emerge as alternative steady states
      • Low moisture and high VPD trigger desiccation in previously stressed plants
    36. Moisture profiles of the upper soil layer during evaporation monitored by NMR (pages 5184–5195)

      Steffen Merz, Andreas Pohlmeier, Jan Vanderborght, Dagmar van Dusschoten and Harry Vereecken

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014809

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      Key Points

      • Moisture changes during evaporation investigated by NMR and MRI
      • Transition from stage I to stage II evaporation
      • S-shaped profiles observed with different NMR methods
    37. Effect of low-permeability layers on spatial patterns of hyporheic exchange and groundwater upwelling (pages 5196–5215)

      Jesus D. Gomez-Velez, Stefan Krause and John L. Wilson

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015054

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      Key Points

      • Low-permeability layers show long residence times and solute accumulation
      • Low-permeability layers induce hydrodynamic sequestration
      • Interface of low-permeability layer has the potential to be a biogeochemical hot spot
    38. Seasonal snowpack characteristics influence soil temperature and water content at multiple scales in interior western U.S. mountain ecosystems (pages 5216–5234)

      Gregory E. Maurer and David R. Bowling

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014452

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      Key Points

      • Soil temperature and moisture data were examined for western U.S. mountains
      • Seasonal snowpack characteristics influence the soil environment
      • This has potential impacts for ecosystems and biogeochemical processes
    39. Field testing of the universal calibration function for determination of soil moisture with cosmic-ray neutrons (pages 5235–5248)

      David McJannet, Trenton Franz, Aaron Hawdon, Dave Boadle, Brett Baker, Auro Almeida, Richard Silberstein, Trish Lambert and Darin Desilets

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015513

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      Key Points

      • The “universal calibration function” is tested with field measurements
      • Neutron intensity correlated strongly with total hydrogen
      • The best fit to measurements differed from the universal function
    40. A 2000 year natural record of magnitudes and frequencies for the largest Upper Colorado River floods near Moab, Utah (pages 5249–5269)

      Noam Greenbaum, Tessa M. Harden, Victor R. Baker, John Weisheit, Michael L. Cline, Naomi Porat, Rafi Halevi and John Dohrenwend

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014835

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      Key Points

      • Forty four natural large floods occurred during the last two millennia
      • Large floods are much more frequent than represented in the gaged record
      • Conventional analysis underestimates the frequencies of extreme floods
    41. Seasonal soil moisture patterns: Controlling transit time distributions in a forested headwater catchment (pages 5270–5289)

      Michael Paul Stockinger, Heye Reemt Bogena, Andreas Lücke, Bernd Diekkrüger, Markus Weiler and Harry Vereecken

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014815

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      Key Points

      • Transit time distributions derived for river locations are heterogeneous
      • Runoff-generating area reduces to riparian zone in the dry state
      • Negative correlation between riparian zone area and mean transit time
  3. Technical Notes

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Technical Notes
    5. Commentaries
    6. Comments and Replies
    1. Capillary pressure overshoot for unstable wetting fronts is explained by Hoffman's velocity-dependent contact-angle relationship (pages 5290–5297)

      Christine E. Baver, J.-Yves Parlange, Cathelijne R. Stoof, David A. DiCarlo, Rony Wallach, Deanna S. Durnford and Tammo S. Steenhuis

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014766

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      Key Points

      • At the fingertip, pore water velocities are much greater than front velocities
      • Increased pore water velocities result in increased (dynamic) contact angles
      • Dynamic contact angles greater than static values cause overshoot in fingers
    2. Estimation of spatial covariance of log conductivity from particle size data (pages 5298–5308)

      Monica Riva, Xavier Sanchez-Vila and Alberto Guadagnini

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015566

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      Key Points

      • The covariance of Y = lnK is derived as a function of particle size curves
      • Workable second-order approximations of such covariance are presented
      • A field application is presented
    3. Jointly deriving NMR surface relaxivity and pore size distributions by NMR relaxation experiments on partially desaturated rocks (pages 5309–5321)

      O. Mohnke and B. Hughes

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015282

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      Key Points

      • NMR surface relaxivity and pore sizes are jointly calibrated and estimated
      • Inverse modeling using simple pore bundle models was tested and validated
      • Water retention curves were predicted
    4. A catalog of moisture sources for continental climatic regions (pages 5322–5328)

      Raquel Nieto, Rodrigo Castillo, Anita Drumond and Luis Gimeno

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013901

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      Key Points

      • Moisture sources for two continental climate regionalization schemes
      • Role of major teleconnections on moisture transport
      • Influence of the hot spot source regions over climatic regions
    5. Correcting artifacts in transition to a wound optic fiber: Example from high-resolution temperature profiling in the Dead Sea (pages 5329–5333)

      Ali Arnon, John Selker and Nadav Lensky

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014910

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      Key Points

      • Structured artifacts at the transition to a high-resolution helically wound optic fiber
      • Correction of the artifact is suggested here
  4. Commentaries

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Technical Notes
    5. Commentaries
    6. Comments and Replies
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    2. Debates—The future of hydrological sciences: A (common) path forward? A call to action aimed at understanding velocities, celerities and residence time distributions of the headwater hydrograph (pages 5342–5350)

      Jeffrey J. McDonnell and Keith Beven

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015141

      Key Points

      • Celerity is faster than velocity
      • Watershed models are evaluated only against celerity
      • Velocity must be addressed in future watershed models
    3. Debates—the future of hydrological sciences: A (common) path forward? Using models and data to learn: A systems theoretic perspective on the future of hydrological science (pages 5351–5359)

      Hoshin V. Gupta and Grey S. Nearing

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015096

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      Key Points

      • Discovery can be advanced by taking a perspective based in Information Theory
      • Much can be gained by focusing on the a priori role of Process Modeling
      • System Parameterization can result in information loss
  5. Comments and Replies

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Technical Notes
    5. Commentaries
    6. Comments and Replies

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