Water Resources Research

Cover image for Vol. 50 Issue 7

July 2014

Volume 50, Issue 7

Pages i–vi, 5379–6268

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Comment
    5. Reply
    1. Issue Information (pages i–vi)

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20478

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Comment
    5. Reply
    1. Optimal plant water-use strategies under stochastic rainfall (pages 5379–5394)

      Stefano Manzoni, Giulia Vico, Gabriel Katul, Sari Palmroth and Amilcare Porporato

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015375

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      Key Points

      • Plant hydraulic traits control mean transpiration and hence plant fitness
      • Coordination among plant hydraulic traits maximizes mean transpiration
      • Optimal coordination is tighter in mesic climates or with intermittent rain
    2. Increased evaporation following widespread tree mortality limits streamflow response (pages 5395–5409)

      J. A. Biederman, A. A. Harpold, D. J. Gochis, B. E. Ewers, D. E. Reed, S. A. Papuga and P. D. Brooks

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014994

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      Key Points

      • Water vapor loss remained high following forest mortality
      • Abiotic evaporation counteracted reduced transpiration
      • Streamflow did not increase, in contrast to expectations
    3. Large-scale hydraulic tomography and joint inversion of head and tracer data using the Principal Component Geostatistical Approach (PCGA) (pages 5410–5427)

      J. Lee and P. K. Kitanidis

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015483

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      Key Points

      • We test the efficiency and accuracy of the PCGA with implementation guidance
      • The PCGA requires making calls to a forward model without the adjoint-state method
      • The randomized technique enables the low-rank approximation of large covariance
    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Principal Component Geostatistical Approach for large-dimensional inverse problems (pages 5428–5443)

      P. K. Kitanidis and J. Lee

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014630

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      Key Points

      • The geostatistical inverse method can now be applied for large problems
      • The large reduction in computational cost may entail very small accuracy loss
      • The method uses forward models and is easily parallelizable
    5. The role of tributary relative timing and sequencing in controlling large floods (pages 5444–5458)

      Ian Pattison, Stuart N. Lane, Richard J. Hardy and Sim M. Reaney

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014067

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      Key Points

      • Tributary timing is a significant control on downstream flooding
      • Synergy occurs between two subwatersheds, meaning impacts are unpredictable
      • Modifying biophysical properties play an important management due to timing
    6. Hydrodynamic parameters of a sandy soil determined by ground-penetrating radar inside a single ring infiltrometer (pages 5459–5474)

      Emmanuel Léger, Albane Saintenoy and Yves Coquet

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014226

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      Key Points

      • Monitoring the wetting front with on-ground GPR
      • Obtaining the whole set of Mualem-van Genuchten parameters
    7. Analytical optimization of demand management strategies across all urban water use sectors (pages 5475–5491)

      Kenneth Friedman, James P. Heaney, Miguel Morales and John Palenchar

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014261

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      Key Points

      • An analytical solution is presented for optimal urban water demand management
      • This approach allows for integrated management of all water use sectors
      • The data driven parcel level approach allows for strategic targeting
    8. Spatiotemporal flood sensitivity to annual precipitation: Evidence for landscape-climate coevolution (pages 5492–5509)

      Rui A. P. Perdigão and Günter Blöschl

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015365

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      Key Points

      • Spatial and temporal sensitivities of floods to precipitation can differ
      • Symmetry breaks relate to landscape-climate coevolution
      • Simple dynamical model of coevolution supports statistical results
    9. Analytical model for flow duration curves in seasonally dry climates (pages 5510–5531)

      Marc F. Müller, David N. Dralle and Sally E. Thompson

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015301

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      Key Points

      • Probabilistic derivation of flow distribution in seasonally dry climate
      • Successfully applied in Nepal, California, and Western Australia
      • Disentangles inter- and intra-annual streamflow variations
    10. Annual bank and point bar morphodynamics of a meandering river determined by high-accuracy multitemporal laser scanning and flow data (pages 5532–5559)

      E. Lotsari, M. Vaaja, C. Flener, H. Kaartinen, A. Kukko, E. Kasvi, H. Hyyppä, J. Hyyppä and P. Alho

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014106

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      Key Points

      • Bank and point bar morphodynamics are analyzed by means of multitemporal data
      • Morphodynamics differ annually, but are rather consistent in a given year
      • Changes are most dependent on spring flow peak characteristics
    11. Absolute versus temporal anomaly and percent of saturation soil moisture spatial variability for six networks worldwide (pages 5560–5576)

      L. Brocca, G. Zucco, H. Mittelbach, T. Moramarco and S. I. Seneviratne

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015684

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      Key Points

      • The behavior of absolute and anomaly soil moisture data is highly different
      • The spatial variability of temporal anomalies is much lower than absolute values
      • The variability of temporal anomalies has a miminum for intermediate conditions
    12. Catchments as simple dynamical systems: A case study on methods and data requirements for parameter identification (pages 5577–5596)

      L. A. Melsen, A. J. Teuling, S. W. van Berkum, P. J. J. F. Torfs and R. Uijlenhoet

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014720

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      Key Points

      • Automatic calibration, recession analysis, and Boussinesq theory are compared
      • Automatic calibration leads to the highest model efficiencies
      • One season of data is needed for robust parameter estimation
    13. A diameter-sensitive flow entropy method for reliability consideration in water distribution system design (pages 5597–5610)

      Haixing Liu, Dragan Savić, Zoran Kapelan, Ming Zhao, Yixing Yuan and Hongbin Zhao

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014882

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      Key Points

      • Novel entropy as a surrogate measure for reliability assessment
      • Uncertainty inclusion in reliability assessment framework of water networks
      • Correlation analysis between entropy and reliability
    14. Snowpack regimes of the Western United States (pages 5611–5623)

      Ernesto Trujillo and Noah P. Molotch

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014753

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      Key Points

      • No proportionality in the SWE curve is inferred in the Western United States
      • Relationships between SWE metrics highlight the natural snowpack patterns
      • SWE metrics offer basis for comparison of current and future snowpack dynamics
    15. Cholera in the Lake Kivu region (DRC): Integrating remote sensing and spatially explicit epidemiological modeling (pages 5624–5637)

      Flavio Finger, Allyn Knox, Enrico Bertuzzo, Lorenzo Mari, Didier Bompangue, Marino Gatto, Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe and Andrea Rinaldo

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015521

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      Key Points

      • Markov chain model of cholera dynamics in the Lake Kivu area (DRC)
      • Global climate anomalies are the main drivers, together with rainfall
      • The influence of mobility and remotely sensed chlorophyll a were also tested
    16. Patterns of similarity of seasonal water balances: A window into streamflow variability over a range of time scales (pages 5638–5661)

      Wouter R. Berghuijs, Murugesu Sivapalan, Ross A. Woods and Hubert H. G. Savenije

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015692

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      Key Points

      • Framework for the seasonal water balance is developed based on climatic controls
      • The 321 catchments are grouped into 10 clusters with similar seasonal water balances
      • The seasonal water balance has an imprint both on streamflow and landscape
    17. Rescuing degrading aquifers in the Central Coastal Plain of North Carolina (USA): Just process, effective groundwater management policy, and sustainable aquifers (pages 5662–5677)

      Alex K. Manda and Wendy A. Klein

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015242

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      Key Points

      • Incorporate social psychological and socio-legal concepts into policy process
      • Groundwater management process as an example for coastal communities
      • Acceptable policy results in groundwater recovery and sustainability
    18. Modeling biofilm dynamics and hydraulic properties in variably saturated soils using a channel network model (pages 5678–5697)

      Ravid Rosenzweig, Alex Furman, Carlos Dosoretz and Uri Shavit

      Article first published online: 12 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015211

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      Key Points

      • A pore network was used to simulate coupled water flow and biofilm dynamics
      • Mass transfer at the water-biofilm interface controls biofilm dynamics
      • High mass transfer coefficient leads to severe clogging
    19. Global-scale assessment of groundwater depletion and related groundwater abstractions: Combining hydrological modeling with information from well observations and GRACE satellites (pages 5698–5720)

      Petra Döll, Hannes Müller Schmied, Carina Schuh, Felix T. Portmann and Annette Eicker

      Article first published online: 12 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015595

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      Key Points

      • Groundwater depletion is simulated by a global model
      • Seventy percent deficit irrigation is likely in groundwater depletion areas
      • About 15% of global groundwater abstractions are from nonrenewable sources
    20. Electrical-hydraulic relationships observed for unconsolidated sediments in the presence of a cobble framework (pages 5721–5742)

      Lee Slater, Warren Barrash, Jeanette Montrey and Andrew Binley

      Article first published online: 12 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014631

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      Key Points:

      • The cobble framework complicates interpretation of K from SIP
      • Discounting the cobble framework improves SIP estimation of K
      • Such discounting also improves estimation of imaginary conductivity
    21. Effects of heterogeneous soil-water diffusivity on vegetation pattern formation (pages 5743–5758)

      H. Yizhaq, S. Sela, T. Svoray, S. Assouline and G. Bel

      Article first published online: 12 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015362

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      Key Points

      • Modeling the effects of heterogeneous soil-water diffusivity
      • Heterogeneity increases vegetation durability
      • Vegetation pattern changes from self-organized to imposed due to heterogeneity
    22. Solute transport in aquifers of arbitrary variability: A time-domain random walk formulation (pages 5759–5773)

      Vladimir Cvetkovic, Aldo Fiori and Gedeon Dagan

      Article first published online: 12 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015449

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      Key Points

      • Simple tool for solute transport in 3-D aquifers of arbitrary variability
      • Origin of non-Fickian transport by higher-order temporal moments
      • Conceptual clarification on relationship between TDRW and CTRW approaches
    23. The delivery of dissolved organic carbon from a forested hillslope to a headwater stream in southeastern Pennsylvania, USA (pages 5774–5796)

      Yi Mei, George M. Hornberger, Louis A. Kaplan, J. Denis Newbold and Anthony K. Aufdenkampe

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015635

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      Key Points

      • A finite element model was developed for DOC
      • Our model successfully reveals the DOC flushing processes during storms
      • Key factors controlling the discharge concentration relationship were identified
    24. On the upscaling of chemical transport in fractured rock (pages 5797–5816)

      Vladimir Cvetkovic and Hrvoje Gotovac

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015505

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      Key Points

      • Probabilistic interpretation of flow-dependent specific surface area for rocks
      • Upscaling of reactive transport in rock
      • Bounds for flow-dependent specific surface area
    25. Coping with model error in variational data assimilation using optimal mass transport (pages 5817–5830)

      Lipeng Ning, Francesca P. Carli, Ardeshir Mohammad Ebtehaj, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou and Tryphon T. Georgiou

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014966

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      Key Points

      • We introduce a method to handle model uncertainty in data assimilation
      • Optimal mass transport is used to quantify mismatch between forecast and states
      • The promise of our method is demonstrated in advection-diffusion dynamics
    26. Analytical solutions for flow in porous media with multicomponent cation exchange reactions (pages 5831–5847)

      Ashwin Venkatraman, Marc A. Hesse, Larry W. Lake and Russell T. Johns

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015091

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      Key Points

      • Analytical model for cation exchange reactions (Na, Mg, and Ca) with transport
      • Composition space analysis for intermediate compositions and effluent profiles
      • Ternary cation exchange transport model matches laboratory and field measurements
    27. Systematic assessment of the uncertainty in integrated surface water-groundwater modeling based on the probabilistic collocation method (pages 5848–5865)

      Bin Wu, Yi Zheng, Yong Tian, Xin Wu, Yingying Yao, Feng Han, Jie Liu and Chunmiao Zheng

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015366

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      Key Points

      • Systematic uncertainty analysis for integrated surface water-groundwater models
      • A holistic view of the modeling uncertainty achieved with a low computing cost
      • Insights into process understanding, model calibration, and data collection
    28. Water resources of the Black Sea Basin at high spatial and temporal resolution (pages 5866–5885)

      Elham Rouholahnejad, Karim C. Abbaspour, Raghvan Srinivasan, Victor Bacu and Anthony Lehmann

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014132

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      Key Points

      • A high-resolution hydrological model of the Black Sea Basin is built
      • We included river discharge, crop yield, and nitrate load in calibration
      • Blue and green water resources of the Basin are calculated at subbasin level
    29. Derivation of lowland riparian wetland deposit architecture using geophysical image analysis and interface detection (pages 5886–5905)

      J. E. Chambers, P. B. Wilkinson, S. Uhlemann, J. P. R. Sorensen, C. Roberts, A. J. Newell, W. O. C. Ward, A. Binley, P. J. Williams, D. C. Gooddy, G. Old and L. Bai

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015643

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      Key Points

      • Subsurface wetland architecture is characterized using 3-D resistivity imaging
      • Edge detectors for resistivity image analysis are compared
      • Resistivity models illuminate structures relevant to hydrological functioning
    30. A simple and effective method for quantifying spatial anisotropy of time series of precipitation fields (pages 5906–5925)

      Tero J. Niemi, Teemu Kokkonen and Alan W. Seed

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015190

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      Key Points

      • Method to quantify the anisotropy of precipitation fields is proposed
      • Method is suitable for a time series of fields
      • Good performance is achieved with both generated and measured rain fields
    31. Modeling intersite dependence for regional frequency analysis of extreme marine events (pages 5926–5940)

      Jérôme Weiss, Pietro Bernardara and Michel Benoit

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015391

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      Key Points

      • Intersite dependence for regional frequency analysis (pooling method)
      • Model describing both the storm propagation in the region and the storm intensity
      • Assessment of the regional effective duration and the return periods of storms
    32. Integrated mathematical modeling of hydrological and hydrodynamic response to rainfall events in rural lowland catchments (pages 5941–5957)

      D. P. Viero, P. Peruzzo, L. Carniello and A. Defina

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014293

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      Key Points

      • A process-based, coupled surface-subsurface, 2-D mathematical model is presented
      • The model effectively integrates the main hydrologic and hydraulic processes
      • The model can be applied to storm events in rural lowland catchments
    33. A multimodel regression-sampling algorithm for generating rich monthly streamflow scenarios (pages 5958–5979)

      Chao Li and Vijay P. Singh

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013969

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      Key Points

      • A multimodel framework for streamflow simulation
      • Generates rich streamflow scenarios
      • Preserves complex distributional properties
    34. How will increases in rainfall intensity affect semiarid ecosystems? (pages 5980–6001)

      Koen Siteur, Maarten B. Eppinga, Derek Karssenberg, Mara Baudena, Marc F.P. Bierkens and Max Rietkerk

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014955

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      Key Points

      • Rainfall intensity controls patterning and the resilience of arid ecosystems
      • Both an increase and decrease in rainfall intensity can trigger desertification
      • In line with observations, three types of rain events were identified in our model
    35. Modeling water demand when households have multiple sources of water (pages 6002–6014)

      Lassina Coulibaly, Paul M. Jakus and John E. Keith

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015090

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      Key Points

      • Few studies examine water demand when there are multiple sources of water
      • Demand for piped water is more elastic as more alternatives become available
      • Public water utilities may be more price constrained than previously thought
    36. Spatial characterization of roughness elements in high-gradient channels of the Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado, USA (pages 6015–6029)

      Steven E. Yochum, Brian P. Bledsoe, Ellen Wohl and Gabrielle C. L. David

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015587

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      Key Points

      • Random field approach is utilized for assessing elevation and depth variability
      • Bed elevation standard deviation and depth skew effectiveness for predicting f
      • Skew and kurtosis are valuable for quantifying the spectrum of channel types
    37. A robust multimodel framework for ensemble seasonal hydroclimatic forecasts (pages 6030–6052)

      Pablo A. Mendoza, Balaji Rajagopalan, Martyn P. Clark, Gonzalo Cortés and James McPhee

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015426

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      Key Points

      • Multimodel ensemble forecasting systems involve several methodological choices
      • A robust framework for decision-making is provided
      • The utility of this approach is demonstrated for seasonal streamflow forecasts
    38. Interplay of climate seasonality and soil moisture-rainfall feedback (pages 6053–6066)

      Jun Yin, Amilcare Porporato and John Albertson

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014772

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      Key Points

      • Stochastic soil moisture-rainfall feedback model and the role of seasonality
      • Soil moisture distribution may exhibit bimodal behavior at the start of the warm season
      • The results corroborate the hypothesis of soil moisture-rainfall feedback
    39. Topographic controls on shallow groundwater levels in a steep, prealpine catchment: When are the TWI assumptions valid? (pages 6067–6080)

      M. Rinderer, H. J. van Meerveld and J. Seibert

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015009

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      Key Points

      • Median groundwater levels were correlated to topographic indices
      • Correlation between groundwater levels and topographic indices varied over time
      • TWI assumptions were most valid during wet conditions, after peak flows
    40. Soil moisture and soil properties estimation in the Community Land Model with synthetic brightness temperature observations (pages 6081–6105)

      Xujun Han, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, Carsten Montzka and Harry Vereecken

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014586

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      Key Points

      • Assimilation with biased soil properties can worsen surface fluxes characterization
      • Spatial distribution of model states and soil properties can be updated
      • Joint assimilation works better for a coupled land surface and microwave model
    41. An entropy-based surface velocity method for estuarine discharge measurement (pages 6106–6128)

      Adam J. Bechle and Chin H. Wu

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015353

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      Key Points

      • Estuarine flow is approximated by calibrated entropy-based flow profiles
      • Discharge is estimated with entropy profiles and LSPIV average surface velocity
      • Wind effect on discharge estimate is removed using a log-layer approximation
    42. Scale-dependent energy conservation and its connection to flow field instability in porous media (pages 6129–6134)

      M. R. Deinert

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015168

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      Key Points

      • Pore-scale processes can cause nonequilibrium
      • Nonequilibrium can affect scale-dependent energy balance
      • Scale-dependent energy balance can affect flow stability
    43. Continuous streamflow prediction in ungauged basins: The effects of equifinality and parameter set selection on uncertainty in regionalization approaches (pages 6135–6153)

      Richard Arsenault and François P. Brissette

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014898

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      Key Points

      • Uncertainty can be limited in regionalization
      • Physical similarity method is best, followed by spatial proximity
      • Regression-augmented methods can yield better performance
    44. Optimization of canopy conductance models from concurrent measurements of sap flow and stem water potential on Drooping Sheoak in South Australia (pages 6154–6167)

      Hailong Wang, Huade Guan, Zijuan Deng and Craig T. Simmons

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014818

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      Key Points

      • We selected the best canopy conductance model for a native species in Adelaide
      • Selection of proper stress functions is important for conductance modeling
      • Temperature effect is different from other studies and nonignorable
    45. Comparison of effects of inset floodplains and hyporheic exchange induced by in-stream structures on solute retention (pages 6168–6190)

      David L. Azinheira, Durelle T. Scott, W. Hession and Erich T. Hester

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014400

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      Key Points

      • We modeled streams with restored floodplains (FP) and hyporheic zones (HZ)
      • FP had more exchange but HZ had longer residence times more of the year
      • FP and HZ are different but neither may benefit dissolved pollutant removal
    46. Accuracy of travel time distribution (TTD) models as affected by TTD complexity, observation errors, and model and tracer selection (pages 6191–6213)

      Christopher T. Green, Yong Zhang, Bryant C. Jurgens, J. Jeffrey Starn and Matthew K. Landon

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015625

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      Key Points

      • We quantified travel time distribution (TTD) model prediction errors using synthetic data
      • TTD complexity, tracer errors, and tracer selection strongly affected prediction errors
      • A scale-dependent dispersion model improved accuracy of some predictions
    47. Modeling hydrologic and ecologic responses using a new eco-hydrological model for identification of droughts (pages 6214–6235)

      Yohei Sawada, Toshio Koike and Patricia Ann Jaranilla-Sanchez

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014847

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      Key Points

      • We develop a new eco-hydrological model that can reproduce historical droughts
      • We quantify ecological responses to severe droughts by modeling plant growth
      • The response of agricultural drought is faster than that of hydrological one
    48. Numerical assessment of potential impacts of hydraulically fractured Bowland Shale on overlying aquifers (pages 6236–6259)

      Zuansi Cai and Ulrich Ofterdinger

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014943

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      Key Points

      • Hydraulically fractured Bowland Shale unlikely poses risks to aquifers
      • Horizontal mass fluxes significantly reduce pollution risks to aquifers
      • Flow and solute transport approaches must be used for the risk assessment
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