Water Resources Research

Cover image for Vol. 50 Issue 8

August 2014

Volume 50, Issue 8

Pages i–v, 6269–7066

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Technical Reports: Methods
    5. Technical Reports: Data
    1. Issue Information (pages i–v)

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20479

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Technical Reports: Methods
    5. Technical Reports: Data
    1. A vertically integrated model with vertical dynamics for CO2 storage (pages 6269–6284)

      Bo Guo, Karl W. Bandilla, Florian Doster, Eirik Keilegavlen and Michael A. Celia

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015215

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      Key Points

      • A vertically integrated model with vertical dynamics is developed
      • It extends the applicability of vertically integrated models for CO2 storage
      • It maintains most computational advantages of vertical equilibrium models
    2. Including adaptation and mitigation responses to climate change in a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm framework for urban water supply systems incorporating GHG emissions (pages 6285–6304)

      F. L. Paton, H. R. Maier and G. C. Dandy

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015195

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      Key Points

      • Developing an urban water supply planning framework to mitigate GHG emissions
      • Analyzing the impact of minimizing GHG emissions on cost and supply security
      • Using a real-life case study to illustrate the planning value of the approach
    3. Characterization of flow parameters and evidence of pore clogging during limestone dissolution experiments (pages 6305–6321)

      L. Luquot, T. S. Roetting and J. Carrera

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015193

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      Key Points

      • A new methodology to evaluate flow and transport parameters
      • Clogging phenomenon observed during calcite dissolution
      • Permeability-porosity/diffusion coefficient relationships are negative
    4. Impact of numerical artifact of the forward model in the inverse solution of density-dependent flow problem (pages 6322–6338)

      Mohamed K. Nassar and Timothy R. Ginn

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014672

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      Key Points

      • Numerical errors in forward model play a big role in calibration success
      • Numerical errors roughen the objective function making the inverse nonunique
      • Some techniques to reduce the impact of errors are demonstrated
    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Extrapolating active layer thickness measurements across Arctic polygonal terrain using LiDAR and NDVI data sets (pages 6339–6357)

      Chandana Gangodagamage, Joel C. Rowland, Susan S. Hubbard, Steven P. Brumby, Anna K. Liljedahl, Haruko Wainwright, Cathy J. Wilson, Garrett L. Altmann, Baptiste Dafflon, John Peterson, Craig Ulrich, Craig E. Tweedie and Stan D. Wullschleger

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014283

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      Key Points

      • First effort to map the ALT using fine resolution remotely sensed data
      • A blended methodology incorporating RS data and statistical manipulation
      • Smaller-scale ALT is controlled by eco-hydro-geo variables
    6. Single-parameter model of vegetated aquatic flows (pages 6358–6369)

      Ilenia Battiato and Simonetta Rubol

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015065

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      Key Points

      • Analytical model characterized by one fitting parameter
      • Velocities in the canopy and surface layers follow two different scaling laws
      • Good agreement between model predictions and experimental data
    7. Modeling irrigation behavior in groundwater systems (pages 6370–6389)

      Timothy Foster, Nicholas Brozović and Adrian P. Butler

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015620

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      Key Points

      • Declining well yields restrict optimal irrigated area and irrigation demand
      • Reductions in irrigated area are required to avoid damaging crop water stress
      • Failure to model well yield leads to overprediction of profits and resilience
    8. Behavioral response to contamination risk information in a spatially explicit groundwater environment: Experimental evidence (pages 6390–6405)

      Jingyuan Li, Holly A. Michael, Joshua M. Duke, Kent D. Messer and Jordan F. Suter

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015230

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      Key Points

      • Economics experiments test groundwater user behavior with contamination risk
      • Risk information affects extraction behavior with invariant economic incentives
      • More extensive hydrogeologic information leads to more sustainable behavior
    9. Inference of reactive transport model parameters using a Bayesian multivariate approach (pages 6406–6427)

      Luca Carniato, Gerrit Schoups and Nick van de Giesen

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014156

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      Key Points

      • Effect of residual correlation is limited to strongly correlated cases
      • Linearly correlated residuals cannot account for model structural errors
      • Analytically integrating out covariances leads to efficient inference
    10. Assessing the impacts of fiscal reforms on investment in village-level irrigation infrastructure (pages 6428–6446)

      Christine E. Boyle, Qiuqiong Huang and Jinxia Wang

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015125

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      Key Points

      • Changes due to fiscal reforms have reduced villages' capacity to fund irrigation works
      • Since 2005, the central government has been the main village irrigation works investor
      • Farmers remain the most stable source of investment for village irrigation projects
    11. Epidemiology of urban water distribution systems (pages 6447–6465)

      Jean-Pierre Bardet and Richard Little

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015017

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      Key Points

      • Application of human epidemiology to water pipes breaks in cities
      • Stressors trigger failure waves in pipes weakened by fatigue and corrosion
      • Prediction of clustered pipe breaks with harvesting model
    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A simple inverse method for the interpretation of pumped flowing fluid electrical conductivity logs (pages 6466–6478)

      R. S. Moir, A. H. Parker and R. T. Bown

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR013871

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      Key Points

      • A simple method for automatic processing of pumped dilution tests is presented
      • The method allows depth varying hydraulic conductivity to be calculated
    13. Nonequilibrium water dynamics in the rhizosphere: How mucilage affects water flow in soils (pages 6479–6495)

      Eva Kroener, Mohsen Zarebanadkouki, Anders Kaestner and Andrea Carminati

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014756

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      Key Points

      • Development of a new model of root water uptake including nonequilibrium
      • Experimental evidence how mucilage alters hydraulic properties
      • Hydraulic nonequilibrium observed with neutron radiography
    14. Comparing vertical profiles of natural tracers in the Williston Basin to estimate the onset of deep aquifer activation (pages 6496–6506)

      M. Jim Hendry and Glenn A. Harrington

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015652

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      Key Points

      • Two naturally occurring tracers yield consistent and complementary results
      • Solute transport in thick (395 m) Cretaceous shale is dominated by diffusion
      • Water recharge into an aquifer during glaciation is the dominant palaeoevent
    15. Modeling spatiotemporal impacts of hydroclimatic extremes on groundwater recharge at a Mediterranean karst aquifer (pages 6507–6521)

      Andreas Hartmann, Matías Mudarra, Bartolomé Andreo, Ana Marín, Thorsten Wagener and Jens Lange

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015685

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      Key Points

      • A new approach for spatiotemporal recharge estimation for karst aquifers
      • Impacts of hydroclimatic extremes on the entire karst system are elaborated
      • Recharge rates are more sensitive to a precipitation decrease than an increase
    16. Discontinuous Galerkin flood model formulation: Luxury or necessity? (pages 6522–6541)

      Georges Kesserwani and Yueling Wang

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014906

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      Key Points

      • Improved flood model formulation
      • Comparative performance study
      • Implication to flood modeling practice
    17. Robust, low-cost data loggers for stream temperature, flow intermittency, and relative conductivity monitoring (pages 6542–6548)

      Thomas P. Chapin, Andrew S. Todd and Matthew P. Zeigler

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015158

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      Key points

      • High-resolution, long-duration, intermittent stream flow, and temperature monitoring
      • Provides relative conductivity information and can estimate specific conductivity
      • Simple, low-cost, robust design, operates when frozen or buried in sediment
    18. A semianalytical solution for the Boussinesq equation with nonhomogeneous constant boundary conditions (pages 6549–6556)

      Nelson L. Dias, Tomás L. Chor and Ailín Ruiz de Zárate

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015437

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      Key Points

      • An analytical solution of the Boussinesq equation is obtained
      • Expressions are derived for practical applications
      • The new expressions may be applied in drainage engineering and Hydrology
    19. Bed load fluctuations in a steep channel (pages 6557–6576)

      Tamara Ghilardi, Mário J. Franca and Anton J. Schleiss

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014449

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      Key Points

      • Observation of bed load fluctuations and correlated bed states in a steep channel
      • Correlational and phase analysis of bed load, flow velocity, and bed morphology
      • Link between velocity, morphology variables, and bed load transport is shown
    20. Economic analysis of the water demand in the hotels and restaurants sector: Shadow prices and elasticities (pages 6577–6591)

      Ana Angulo, Majed Atwi, Ramón Barberán and Jesús Mur

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014085

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      Key Points

      • Water consumption is largely out of control in the hotels and restaurants sector
      • The shadow price of water is higher than the observed price
      • Water price elasticity enables the use of pricing in water demand management
    21. Assessing the value of seasonal climate forecast information through an end-to-end forecasting framework: Application to U.S. 2012 drought in central Illinois (pages 6592–6609)

      Majid Shafiee-Jood, Ximing Cai, Ligang Chen, Xin-Zhong Liang and Praveen Kumar

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015822

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      Key Points

      • Current seasonal forecasts can make farmers worse off in extreme droughts
      • Institutional interventions affect value of forecasts and farmers' decisions
      • Limited predictability of extreme droughts challenges ex ante assessment
    22. Antecedent moisture conditions control mercury and dissolved organic carbon concentration dynamics in a boreal headwater catchment (pages 6610–6627)

      Claire J. Oswald and Brian A. Branfireun

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014736

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      Key Points

      • Mercury and organic carbon dynamics depend on antecedent moisture conditions
      • Mercury and organic carbon concentration-discharge relationships shift after dry periods
      • Changing runoff sources and flow pathways result in variable solute export
    23. Hydrogeologic insights for a Devil's Slide-like system (pages 6628–6645)

      Matthew A. Thomas and Keith Loague

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015649

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      Key Points

      • Hydrogeologic study of a landslide-prone section of the central California coast
      • Simulated fluid pressures suggest the slope is unconditionally unstable
      • Consideration of the unsaturated zone is important to understand slope failure
    24. Using multiple donor sites for enhanced flood estimation in ungauged catchments (pages 6646–6657)

      T. R. Kjeldsen, D. A. Jones and D. G. Morris

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015203

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      Key Points

      • Statistical framework for optimal transfer of data from multiple donor sites
      • New performance measure accounting for at-site sampling variability
      • A minimum of six donor sites gives the optimal index flood prediction
    25. Local- and field-scale stochastic-advective vertical solute transport in horizontally heterogeneous unsaturated soils (pages 6658–6678)

      Richa Ojha, A. Prakash and Rao S. Govindaraju

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015562

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      Key Points

      • Local-scale model for solute transport is developed
      • The local-scale solutions are upscaled to field-scale solute transport
      • Analytical expressions are developed for mean field-scale resident concentration
    26. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Reimagining cost recovery in Pakistan's irrigation system through willingness-to-pay estimates for irrigation water from a discrete choice experiment (pages 6679–6695)

      Andrew Reid Bell, M. Azeem Ali Shah and Patrick S. Ward

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015704

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      Key Points

      • Farmers are typically willing to pay more for canal water than is assessed
      • Those farmers with most reliable supply are willing to pay the most
      • There is potential to develop self-reinforcing cost recovery in the Indus
    27. Impact of ambient conditions on evaporation from porous media (pages 6696–6712)

      Asaf Ben Neriah, Shmuel Assouline, Uri Shavit and Noam Weisbrod

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015523

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      Key Points

      • Cumulative evaporation during S1 was higher in low temperature
      • The evaporation characteristic length, LC, decreases linearly with temperature
      • The resistance coefficient is constant in S1 and change with T for S2 and ep
    28. Examining spatial and temporal variability in snow water equivalent using a 27 year reanalysis: Kern River watershed, Sierra Nevada (pages 6713–6734)

      Manuela Girotto, Gonzalo Cortés, Steven A. Margulis and Michael Durand

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015346

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      Key Points

      • Spatially and temporally continuous high-resolution SWE estimates are obtained
      • Length and resolution of the reanalysis are unprecedented
      • Interannually variable patterns and mostly nonsignificant trends were found
    29. Improving nutrient management practices in agriculture: The role of risk-based beliefs in understanding farmers' attitudes toward taking additional action (pages 6735–6746)

      Robyn S. Wilson, Gregory Howard and Elizabeth A. Burnett

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015200

      Key Points

      • Farmers' attitudes are largely driven by perceived risk and response efficacy
      • The majority of farmers (∼93%) have a positive attitude toward taking action
      • Younger farmers already engaged in conservation have a more positive attitude
    30. Saltwater-freshwater mixing dynamics in a sandy beach aquifer over tidal, spring-neap, and seasonal cycles (pages 6747–6766)

      James W. Heiss and Holly A. Michael

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015574

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      Key Points

      • Beach mixing zone varied over tidal, spring-neap, and seasonal cycles
      • Salinity varies most strongly in response to seasonal inland water table changes
      • Beach groundwater dynamics have implications for biogeochemical cycling
    31. Approximate Bayesian Computation using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation: DREAM(ABC) (pages 6767–6787)

      Mojtaba Sadegh and Jasper A. Vrugt

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015386

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      Key Points

      • DREAM(ABC) significantly enhances efficiency of likelihood-free sampling
      • DREAM(ABC) permits diagnostic inference of complex system models
      • DREAM(ABC) is amenable to distributed multiprocessor implementation
    32. Controls on groundwater flow in a semiarid folded and faulted intermountain basin (pages 6788–6809)

      Lyndsay B. Ball, Jonathan Saul Caine and Shemin Ge

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014451

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      Key Points

      • Numerical groundwater model of folded and faulted intermountain basin
      • Different landscapes form topography or permeability controlled flow systems
      • Geologic structure controls recharge mechanisms in valley aquifers
    33. Improved regional water management utilizing climate forecasts: An interbasin transfer model with a risk management framework (pages 6810–6827)

      Weihua Li, A. Sankarasubramanian, R. S. Ranjithan and E. D. Brill

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015248

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      Key Points

      • Climate forecasts promote interbasin transfer
      • Spatial correlation between inflows and initial storage control the transfers
      • Low spatial correlation between inflows and/or initial storage promote IBT
    34. Calibration of seawater intrusion models: Inverse parameter estimation using surface electrical resistivity tomography and borehole data (pages 6828–6849)

      J. Beaujean, F. Nguyen, A. Kemna, A. Antonsson and P. Engesgaard

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014020

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      Key Points

      • Inversion of nonlinear groundwater model
      • To perform quantitative hydrogeophysics
      • To develop a methodology to characterize seawater intrusion
    35. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Risk-based water resources planning: Incorporating probabilistic nonstationary climate uncertainties (pages 6850–6873)

      Edoardo Borgomeo, Jim W. Hall, Fai Fung, Glenn Watts, Keith Colquhoun and Chris Lambert

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015558

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      Key Points

      • Probability of exceeding planned frequency of water shortages is used as a risk metric
      • Nonstationary climate projections used to estimate changes in the risk metric
      • Use of uncertain climate information for adaptation planning is demonstrated
    36. The benefits of using remotely sensed soil moisture in parameter identification of large-scale hydrological models (pages 6874–6891)

      N. Wanders, M. F. P. Bierkens, S. M. de Jong, A. de Roo and D. Karssenberg

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014639

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      Key Points

      • Satellite soil moisture holds potential for calibration of hydrological models
      • Soil moisture observations enable better calibration of land-surface parameters
      • Errors in discharge simulations are reduced using soil moisture for calibration
    37. Snow depth, density, and SWE estimates derived from GPS reflection data: Validation in the western U. S. (pages 6892–6909)

      James L. McCreight, Eric E. Small and Kristine M. Larson

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015561

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      Key Points

      • GPS-based snow depth measurements validated at 18 sites near-peak snow accumulation
      • SWE is calculated from snow density modeled on GPS-based depth observations
      • Near real-time GPS-based snow depth and SWE are accurate enough for most applications
    38. Effects of tidal fluctuations on mixing and spreading in coastal aquifers: Homogeneous case (pages 6910–6926)

      María Pool, Vincent E. A. Post and Craig T. Simmons

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015534

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      Key Points

      • Identification of the controls of tidally driven dynamics
      • Systematic quantification of tidal effects on solute mixing and spreading in SWI
      • Quantitative guidance
    39. Water banking, conjunctive administration, and drought: The interaction of water markets and prior appropriation in southeastern Idaho (pages 6927–6949)

      Sanchari Ghosh, Kelly M. Cobourn and Levan Elbakidze

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015572

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      Key Points

      • Water marketing arrangements interact with existing institutions
      • Conjunctive administration redistributes profit and alters land-use patterns
      • Water banking offsets profit losses from drought and conjunctive administration
    40. One-dimensional soil temperature simulation with Common Land Model by assimilating in situ observations and MODIS LST with the ensemble particle filter (pages 6950–6965)

      Zhongbo Yu, Xiaolei Fu, Lifeng Luo, Haishen Lü, Qin Ju, Di Liu, Dresden A. Kalin, Dui Huang, Chuanguo Yang and Lili Zhao

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2012WR013473

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      Key Points

      • A new data assimilation system
      • MODIS LST
      • Poorly gauged catchments
    41. Detection of spatially limited high-porosity layers using crosshole GPR signal analysis and full-waveform inversion (pages 6966–6985)

      Anja Klotzsche, Jan van der Kruk, John Bradford and Harry Vereecken

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015177

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      Key Points

      • High-contrast layers generate specific waveguide phenomena in crosshole GPR
      • Novel amplitude analysis indicates discontinuous waveguide in GPR data
      • High-resolution full-waveform inversion results are confirmed by porosity logs
    42. Continuous estimation of baseflow in snowmelt-dominated streams and rivers in the Upper Colorado River Basin: A chemical hydrograph separation approach (pages 6986–6999)

      Matthew P. Miller, David D. Susong, Christopher L. Shope, Victor M. Heilweil and Bernard J. Stolp

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014939

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      Key Points

      • Baseflow can be estimated continuously from surface water data
      • A conceptual model was developed to accurately interpret baseflow estimates
      • The approach provides a tool for assessing environmental effects on streamflow
    43. Hydrologic routing using nonlinear cascaded reservoirs (pages 7000–7019)

      Dong Ha Kim and Aris P. Georgakakos

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015662

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      Key Points

      • Identification of nonlinear hydrologic system functions
      • Release-storage, gain/loss functions can be arbitrarily nonlinear but nondecreasing
      • Method applicable for general systems in state space form
    44. Life in a fishbowl: Prospects for the endangered Devils Hole pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) in a changing climate (pages 7020–7034)

      Mark B. Hausner, Kevin P. Wilson, D. Bailey Gaines, Francisco Suárez, G. Gary Scoppettone and Scott W. Tyler

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015511

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      Key Points

      • Numerical simulations predict habitat temperatures under climate scenarios
      • Combining CFD with ecological modeling quantifies impacts of climate change
      • Devils Hole is an indicator of changes expected in similar arid ecosystems
    45. Spatial and diurnal below canopy evaporation in a desert vineyard: Measurements and modeling (pages 7035–7049)

      D. Kool, A. Ben-Gal, N. Agam, J. Šimůnek, J. L. Heitman, T. J. Sauer and N. Lazarovitch

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015409

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      Key Points

      • Evaporation was quantified in a drip-irrigated desert vineyard
      • Specific focus was on spatial and temporal variations across the inter-row
      • Adapted HYDRUS (2-D/3-D) model successfully simulated evaporation patterns
  3. Technical Reports: Methods

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Technical Reports: Methods
    5. Technical Reports: Data
    1. Identifying sampling locations for field-scale soil moisture estimation using K-means clustering (pages 7050–7057)

      Zach Van Arkel and Amy L. Kaleita

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015015

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      Key Points

      • Soil moisture sampling points can be selected using topography and soils data
      • Clustering method gives accurate results without prior observations of soil moisture
  4. Technical Reports: Data

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Technical Reports: Methods
    5. Technical Reports: Data
    1. Oscillatory pumping wells in phreatic, compressible, and homogeneous aquifers (pages 7058–7066)

      G. Dagan and A. Rabinovich

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015454

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      Key Points

      • Analytical solution of periodic head field for oscillatory pumping is derived
      • The major impact of the water table boundary condition is set forth
      • Identification procedure of the parameters is outlined

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