Water Resources Research

Cover image for Vol. 51 Issue 1

January 2015

Volume 51, Issue 1

Pages i–v, 1–786

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Opinion Articles
    5. Review Article
    6. Technical Note
    1. Issue Information (pages i–v)

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.21095

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Opinion Articles
    5. Review Article
    6. Technical Note
    1. Time-variable transit time distributions and transport: Theory and application to storage-dependent transport of chloride in a watershed (pages 1–30)

      Ciaran J. Harman

      Article first published online: 5 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015707

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      Key Points:

      • Wetness-dependent catchment transport captured without coupled hydrologic model
      • Watershed transport dynamics are inverse to those of a “well-mixed store”
      • 1/f spectra of long-term chloride data set reproduced by inverse storage effect
    2. Quantifying stream thermal regimes at multiple scales: Combining thermal infrared imagery and stationary stream temperature data in a novel modeling framework (pages 31–46)

      Shane J. Vatland, Robert E. Gresswell and Geoffrey C. Poole

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015588

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      Key Points:

      • A statistical model using diverse data accurately quantified stream temperature
      • Evaluating stream temperature at fine scales revealed important heterogeneity
      • Temperature data continuous in space and time is critical to guiding monitoring
    3. On consumers' attitudes and willingness to pay for improved drinking water quality and infrastructure (pages 47–57)

      Eftila Tanellari, Darrell Bosch, Kevin Boyle and Elton Mykerezi

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014934

      Key Points:

      • Consumers are most likely to support improvements in public water infrastructure
      • Informational campaigns can increase acceptance of water quality improvement programs
      • Consumer experiences positively affect their willingness to pay
    4. Economic costs incurred by households in the 2011 Greater Bangkok flood (pages 58–77)

      Orapan Nabangchang, Maura Allaire, Prinyarat Leangcharoen, Rawadee Jarungrattanapong and Dale Whittington

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015982

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      Key Points:

      • Household flood losses are estimated using in-person interviews in Bangkok
      • In three heavily affects districts of median household, economic costs were US$3089
      • Most houses suffered only minor structural damage
    5. Incorporation of groundwater pumping in a global Land Surface Model with the representation of human impacts (pages 78–96)

      Yadu N. Pokhrel, Sujan Koirala, Pat J.-F. Yeh, Naota Hanasaki, Laurent Longuevergne, Shinjiro Kanae and Taikan Oki

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015602

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      Key Points:

      • Global Land Surface Model with human impacts, groundwater dynamics, and pumping
      • Explicitly simulated groundwater withdrawal and depletion
      • Groundwater depletion in the Central Valley and the High Plains
    6. Characterization of water content dynamics and tracer breakthrough by 3-D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) under transient unsaturated conditions (pages 97–124)

      Markus Wehrer and Lee D. Slater

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016131

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      Key Points:

      • Preferential flow is observed by ERT and a multicompartment suction plate
      • ERT provides quantitative information under unsaturated transient conditions
      • Specific shape measures are the basis for a quantitative understanding of ERT
    7. Water demand management in times of drought: What matters for water conservation (pages 125–139)

      Elena Maggioni

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016301

      Key Points:

      • Water conservation is analyzed from the perspective of water retailers
      • The study compares price and nonprice conservation measures with panel data
      • Mandates are effective, rates or rebates are not, large agencies perform well
    8. Valuing recreational fishing quality at rivers and streams (pages 140–150)

      Richard T. Melstrom, Frank Lupi, Peter C. Esselman and R. Jan Stevenson

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016152

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      Key points:

      • Demand was modeled for recreational fishing to rivers and streams
      • Fishing site qualities were measured by biomass of five game fish species
      • Fishing sites were defined by hydrological boundaries and stream type
    9. Gas bubble transport and emissions for shallow peat from a northern peatland: The role of pressure changes and peat structure (pages 151–168)

      Xi Chen and Lee Slater

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016268

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      Key Points:

      • Ebullition events triggered by pressure changes in peatland
      • Soil structure regulating methane releases from peatland
    10. Tree-grass competition for soil water in arid and semiarid savannas: The role of rainfall intermittency (pages 169–181)

      Donatella D'Onofrio, Mara Baudena, Fabio D'Andrea, Max Rietkerk and Antonello Provenzale

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015515

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      Key Points:

      • Arid and semiarid savannas are characterized by intermittent rainfall
      • Grass coexists with trees and has strong competitive effect on tree seedlings
      • The level of rainfall intermittency affects savanna occurrence and structure
    11. A conceptual model of people's vulnerability to floods (pages 182–197)

      Luca Milanesi, Marco Pilotti and Roberto Ranzi

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016172

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      Key Points:

      • An improved physically based model of human stability in a flow is proposed
      • Reduction of stability due to sloping terrain and fluid density is accounted
      • The model best matches the available literature experimental data sets
    12. The effect of streambed heterogeneity on groundwater-surface water exchange fluxes inferred from temperature time series (pages 198–212)

      Dylan J. Irvine, Roger H. Cranswick, Craig T. Simmons, Margaret A. Shanafield and Laura K. Lautz

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015769

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      Key points:

      • Effect of streambed heterogeneity on temperature derived fluid fluxes assessed
      • Synthetic temperatures produced using a numerical model where flux was known
      • Greatest flux errors occurred for phase shift where amplitude ratio > 1
    13. Hydraulic response in flooded stream networks (pages 213–240)

      Anna Åkesson, Anders Wörman and Andrea Bottacin-Busolin

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016279

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      Key Points:

      • Different parameterization methods for a streamflow routine were performed
      • Physically based effects of stage-dependency improved the peak flow predictions
      • Stage dependency of geomorphological and hydraulical dispersion mechanisms
    14. Transverse mixing in three-dimensional nonstationary anisotropic heterogeneous porous media (pages 241–260)

      Olaf A. Cirpka, Gabriele Chiogna, Massimo Rolle and Alberto Bellin

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015331

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      Key Points:

      • Natural sediments exhibit nonstationary anisotropic structures
      • Nonstationary anisotropy causes secondary groundwater motion
      • Secondary motion enhances transverse mixing and dilution
    15. Helical flow in three-dimensional nonstationary anisotropic heterogeneous porous media (pages 261–280)

      Gabriele Chiogna, Olaf A. Cirpka, Massimo Rolle and Alberto Bellin

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015330

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      Key Points:

      • Macroscopic helical flow occurs in 3-D nonstationary isotropic media
      • Helicity density is scale dependent and is used to describe flow topology
      • Stretching and folding metrics are used to describe plume deformation
    16. Maximum likelihood parameter estimation for fitting bedload rating curves (pages 281–301)

      David Gaeuman, Craig R. Holt and Kristin Bunte

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015872

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      Key Points:

      • Usual methods for fitting rating curves do not yield meaningful parameter values
      • Max likelihood gives meaningful parameter values and works with zero-valued data
      • Parameters from least squares are sensitive to assumptions about the variance
    17. Ecohydrology in semiarid urban ecosystems: Modeling the relationship between connected impervious area and ecosystem productivity (pages 302–319)

      Catherine Shields and Christina Tague

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016108

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      Key Points:

      • An efficient method for estimating ecohydrologic impacts of impervious area connectivity
      • Runoff from disconnected impervious area can increase productivity in urban vegetation
    18. Comparison of fluvial suspended-sediment concentrations and particle-size distributions measured with in-stream laser diffraction and in physical samples (pages 320–340)

      Jonathan A. Czuba, Timothy D. Straub, Christopher A. Curran, Mark N. Landers and Marian M. Domanski

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015697

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      Key Points:

      • Compared SSC and PSD from LISST-SL and physical samples at 16 sites in IL and WA
      • Effective density of 1.24 g/mL provided best-fit value converting SSCV to SSCM
      • LISST-SL provides high temporal resolution of suspended sediment in rivers
    19. Grower demand for sensor-controlled irrigation (pages 341–358)

      Erik Lichtenberg, John Majsztrik and Monica Saavoss

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015807

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      Key Points:

      • Information from sensor networks can be used to control water application with great precision
      • Initial adoption of sensor networks is likely to be high, relative to other irrigation technologies
      • Diffusion of sensor networks is likely to be more rapid than other irrigation technologies
    20. A general reactive transport modeling framework for simulating and interpreting groundwater 14C age and δ13C (pages 359–376)

      S. U. Salmon, H. Prommer, J. Park, K. T. Meredith, J. V. Turner and J. L. McCallum

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015779

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      Key Points:

      • New approach allows direct comparison of simulated and measured uncorrected 14C
      • Impacts of physical and biogeochemical processes are quantified
      • Organic C impacts on 14C and age estimates may be more prevalent than thought
    21. Electrical permittivity and resistivity time lapses of multiphase DNAPLs in a lab test (pages 377–389)

      Luciana Orlando and Beatrice Renzi

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015291

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      Key Points:

      • Mapping and monitoring of separate and dissolved phases of DNAPL
      • Joint interpretation of noninvasive surveys of ERT and GPR
      • Controlled lab tests in saturated sand
    22. Application of nonequilibrium fracture matrix model in simulating reactive contaminant transport through fractured porous media (pages 390–408)

      Nitin Joshi, C. S. P. Ojha, P. K. Sharma and Chandra A. Madramootoo

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016500

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      Key Points:

      • Nonequilibrium nonlinear sorption models could simulate the BTC tailings
      • SNE with sorption nonlinearity leads to an improved simulation
      • Sorption nonlinearity increases mean arrival time and reduces solute spreading
    23. Robust stochastic optimization for reservoir operation (pages 409–429)

      Limeng Pan, Mashor Housh, Pan Liu, Ximing Cai and Xin Chen

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015380

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      Key Points:

      • The first distributionally robust approach for this dynamic setting problem
      • Our tractable method performs well for both single and multireservoir systems
      • The proposed method is immunized against inaccurate distribution assumption
    24. Spatiotemporal interpolation of discharge across a river network by using synthetic SWOT satellite data (pages 430–449)

      Rodrigo C. D. Paiva, Michael T. Durand and Faisal Hossain

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015618

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      Key Points:

      • Model for discharge spatiotemporal interpolation based on SWOT estimates
      • A physically based correlation function for river discharge was derived
      • Model feasibility is demonstrated in a case study using virtual SWOT data
    25. Irrigation with desalinated water: A step toward increasing water saving and crop yields (pages 450–464)

      Avner Silber, Yair Israeli, Idan Elingold, Menashe Levi, Irit Levkovitch, David Russo and Shmuel Assouline

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016398

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      Key Points:

      • Conventional irrigation management adds a massive load of salt
      • Desalination save significant amounts of water while increasing yield
      • Desalination improves crop quality and reduces salt load in the groundwater
    26. Integrating multiple scales of hydraulic conductivity measurements in training image-based stochastic models (pages 465–480)

      K. Mahmud, G. Mariethoz, A. Baker and A. Sharma

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016150

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      Key Points:

      • Integrating multiple scales of K outside the multi-Gaussian framework
      • The use of upscaling to create a multivariate training image
      • The application of multivariate Image Quilting
    27. Predicting hydrofacies and hydraulic conductivity from direct-push data using a data-driven relevance vector machine approach: Motivations, algorithms, and application (pages 481–505)

      Daniel Paradis, René Lefebvre, Erwan Gloaguen and Alfonso Rivera

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015452

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      Key Points:

      • CPT/SMR data used to estimate high-resolution 1-D K profiles
      • Hydro-geophysical data integration using relevance vector machines
      • K predictions from the learning machine agree with hydraulic tests
    28. A soil moisture accounting-procedure with a Richards' equation-based soil texture-dependent parameterization (pages 506–523)

      Simon A. Mathias, Todd H. Skaggs, Simon A. Quinn, Sorcha N. C. Egan, Lucy E. Finch and Corinne D. Oldham

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016144

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      Key Points:

      • A practical method for estimating vertical percolation using soil texture data
      • Percolation rates are consistent with those predicted by Richards' equation
      • Vertical percolation rates are studied for a broad set of texture classes
    29. The quantity and quality of information in hydrologic models (pages 524–538)

      Grey S. Nearing and Hoshin V. Gupta

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015895

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      Key Points:

      • Models provide information of variable quality
      • Information theory must be adapted to measure model info
      • Dynamic systems models store information via induction
    30. Regional flood frequency analysis at the global scale (pages 539–553)

      Andrew Smith, Christopher Sampson and Paul Bates

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015814

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      Key Points:

      • Regional flood frequency analysis applied at the global scale
      • Distinct patterns in flood behavior between different climates and catchments
      • Validation of RFFA at the global scale
    31. SWOT data assimilation for operational reservoir management on the upper Niger River Basin (pages 554–575)

      S. Munier, A. Polebistki, C. Brown, G. Belaud and D. P. Lettenmaier

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016157

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      Key Points:

      • EnKF is used to assimilate SWOT data into a coupled hydrodynamic-reservoir model
      • The persistence of the assimilation greatly increases with the use of a smoother
      • An automatic controller allows to optimally define reservoir releases
    32. Efficient Bayesian experimental design for contaminant source identification (pages 576–598)

      Jiangjiang Zhang, Lingzao Zeng, Cheng Chen, Dingjiang Chen and Laosheng Wu

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015740

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      Key Points:

      • Optimal monitoring network is decided by Bayesian experimental design
      • Contaminant source is identified by MCMC
      • Sparse grid is used to improve computational efficiency
    33. Relating relative hydraulic and electrical conductivity in the unsaturated zone (pages 599–618)

      Chloe Mawer, Rosemary Knight and Peter K. Kitanidis

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015658

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      Key Points:

      • A relationship between relative hydraulic and electrical conductivity is found
    34. High-resolution modeling of the spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture: Applications in network design (pages 619–638)

      Nathaniel W. Chaney, Joshua K. Roundy, Julio E. Herrera-Estrada and Eric F. Wood

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014964

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      Key Points:

      • High-resolution modeling of soil moisture fields over the Little River Experimental Watershed
      • Analysis of the main drivers of soil moisture heterogeneity
      • Exploration of novel methods for network design
    35. Long-term oscillations in rainfall extremes in a 268 year daily time series (pages 639–647)

      Marco Marani and Stefano Zanetti

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015885

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      Key Points:

      • Observed rainfall extremes vary by more than 100% on multidecadal scales
      • Series shorter than 100+ years do not capture long-term oscillations in extremes
      • Rainfall extremes cycles are driven by global climate patterns such as the NAO
    36. Quantifying the economic importance of irrigation water reuse in a Chilean watershed using an integrated agent-based model (pages 648–668)

      R. T. Arnold, Christian Troost and Thomas Berger

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015382

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      Key Points:

      • Hydro-economic agent-based model quantifies benefits from irrigation water reuse
      • Empirical parameterization is combined with rigorous uncertainty quantification
      • Hoarding of tradable water rights protects hoarders from risks of drought
    37. Supply-based dynamic Ramsey pricing: Avoiding water shortages (pages 669–684)

      Yiğit Sağlam

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR015155

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      Key Points:

      • We model a dynamic pricing problem with resource and revenue constraints
      • Under average-cost prices, water shortages occur every 8 years, on average
      • Under optimal prices, shortages are practically nonexistent over a century
    38. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A generalized regression model of arsenic variations in the shallow groundwater of Bangladesh (pages 685–703)

      Mohammad Shamsudduha, Richard G. Taylor and Richard E. Chandler

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014572

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      Key Points:

      • GRMs explain the spatial variation in As concentrations in Bangladesh
      • Inverse associations between As, recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and irrigation
      • GRMs indicate that recharge serves to flush mobile As from groundwater
    39. Assessment of surface water chloride and conductivity trends in areas of unconventional oil and gas development—Why existing national data sets cannot tell us what we would like to know (pages 704–715)

      Zachary H. Bowen, Gretchen P. Oelsner, Brian S. Cade, Tanya J. Gallegos, Aida M. Farag, David N. Mott, Christopher J. Potter, Peter J. Cinotto, Melanie L. Clark, William M. Kappel, Timothy M. Kresse, Cynthia P. Melcher, Suzanne S. Paschke, David D. Susong and Brian A. Varela

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016382

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      Key Points:

      • We mined national water databases to assess trends in unconventional oil and gas areas
      • No widespread trends in Cl- and SC noted in areas with increased oil and gas wells
      • Analytes, spatial distribution, and frequency of samples are limiting in national data
  3. Opinion Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Opinion Articles
    5. Review Article
    6. Technical Note
    1. Are we unnecessarily constraining the agility of complex process-based models? (pages 716–728)

      Pablo A. Mendoza, Martyn P. Clark, Michael Barlage, Balaji Rajagopalan, Luis Samaniego, Gab Abramowitz and Hoshin Gupta

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015820

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      Key Points:

      • Complex process-based models have strong a priori constraints
      • We provide an example demonstrating strong sensitivity of fixed parameters
      • Relaxing strong a priori constraints can help improve hydrology simulations
  4. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Opinion Articles
    5. Review Article
    6. Technical Note
    1. CO2 wettability of seal and reservoir rocks and the implications for carbon geo-sequestration (pages 729–774)

      Stefan Iglauer, C. H. Pentland and A. Busch

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015553

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      Key Points:

      • CO2 wettability of seal and storage rock: summary of state-of-the-art
      • CO2 wettability of rocks
      • Impact on residual and structural trapping capacity
  5. Technical Note

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Opinion Articles
    5. Review Article
    6. Technical Note
    1. A method for characterizing desiccation-induced consolidation and permeability loss of organic soils (pages 775–786)

      Chelsea L. Arnold and Teamrat A. Ghezzehei

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015745

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      Key Points:

      • Soils can deform by capillary stresses that exceed internal soil strength
      • Drying past historical maximum results in irreversible consolidation
      • The resulting permeability loss significantly alters hydrologic cycle

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