Water Resources Research

Cover image for Vol. 51 Issue 3

March 2015

Volume 51, Issue 3

Pages i–iv, 1381–1882

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Technical Reports: Methods
    5. Comment
    6. Reply
    1. Issue Information (pages i–iv)

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.21097

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Technical Reports: Methods
    5. Comment
    6. Reply
    1. Challenges in modeling unstable two-phase flow experiments in porous micromodels (pages 1381–1400)

      Andrea Ferrari, Joaquin Jimenez-Martinez, Tanguy Le Borgne, Yves Méheust and Ivan Lunati

      Article first published online: 2 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016384

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      Key Points:

      • We validate our numerical approach by comparison with drainage experiments
      • We demonstrate the impact of three main sources of error
      • We compare the results in a deterministic and in a statistical sense
    2. Dynamic connectivity in a fluvial network for identifying hotspots of geomorphic change (pages 1401–1421)

      Jonathan A. Czuba and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou

      Article first published online: 2 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016139

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      Key Points:

      • Assess flux organization on a river network via a dynamic connectivity framework
      • Track how mass clusters and persists during transport on a network
      • Persistent sediment clusters coincide with observed channel-migration hotspots
    3. Probabilistic precipitation rate estimates with ground-based radar networks (pages 1422–1442)

      Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Jonathan J. Gourley, Yang Hong, Jian Zhang, Saber Moazamigoodarzi, Carrie Langston and Ami Arthur

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015672

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      Key Points:

      • Probabilistic radar QPE is derived at fine scale for precipitation types
      • It is the basis for precipitation probability maps and precipitation ensembles
      • It compares positively at the hourly time scale to the deterministic QPE
    4. Hydraulic effects on nitrogen removal in a tidal spring-fed river (pages 1443–1456)

      Robert T. Hensley, Matthew J. Cohen and Larry V. Korhnak

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016178

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      Key Points:

      • Stage and residence time exert considerable control on riverine N removal
      • In a tidal river these properties vary on a predictable cycle
      • Existing models do not account for nonsteady state dynamics
    5. Prediction of Glossosoma biomass spatial distribution in Valley Creek by field measurements and a three-dimensional turbulent open-channel flow model (pages 1457–1471)

      M. Morris, M. Haji Mohammadi, S. Day, M. Hondzo and F. Sotiropoulos

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015887

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      Key Points:

      • Fluid flow of a shallow natural riffle was predicted by large-eddy simulation
      • We developed a scaling relationship for simulated flow and larval distribution
      • Millimeter-scale flow patterns around a larval case were visualized through PIV
    6. A hierarchical Bayesian regional model for nonstationary precipitation extremes in Northern California conditioned on tropical moisture exports (pages 1472–1492)

      Scott Steinschneider and Upmanu Lall

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016664

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      Key Points:

      • Tropical moisture exports modulate the risk of extremes
      • A regional POT model is improved using tropical moisture export information
      • The POT model could be further improved by considering frontal systems
    7. Analysis of subsurface storage and streamflow generation in urban watersheds (pages 1493–1513)

      Aditi S. Bhaskar and Claire Welty

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015607

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      Key Points:

      • Rainfall depth and not watershed storage controls pre-event water proportion
      • The most urban watershed has the largest streamflow sensitivity to storage
      • Hillslope simulations show that the storage-streamflow relationship is hysteretic
    8. An efficient and guaranteed stable numerical method for continuous modeling of infiltration and redistribution with a shallow dynamic water table (pages 1514–1528)

      Wencong Lai, Fred L. Ogden, Robert C. Steinke and Cary A. Talbot

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016487

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      Key Points:

      • Accurate computations of infiltration with shallow water table
      • Numerically stable, computationally efficient, guaranteed mass conservation
      • Well suited for 1-D infiltration computations in large watershed models
    9. Adaptive, multiobjective optimal sequencing approach for urban water supply augmentation under deep uncertainty (pages 1529–1551)

      Eva H. Y. Beh, Holger R. Maier and Graeme C. Dandy

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016254

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      Key Points:

      • Multiobjective optimal sequencing under deep uncertainty
      • Consideration of robustness, flexibility, and adaptation
      • Application to case study based on the southern Adelaide water supply system
    10. Exploring storage and runoff generation processes for urban flooding through a physically based watershed model (pages 1552–1569)

      B. K. Smith, J. A. Smith, M. L. Baeck and A. J. Miller

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016085

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      Key Points:

      • Flood peaks in Dead Run are decreased 11% by detention basins
      • Detention efficiency can be increased by moving detention basins downstream
      • Soil storage is an important factor in urban flood response
    11. Effects of tidal fluctuations and spatial heterogeneity on mixing and spreading in spatially heterogeneous coastal aquifers (pages 1570–1585)

      María Pool, Vincent E. A. Post and Craig T. Simmons

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016068

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      Key Points:

      • Impact of heterogeneity on three-dimensional coastal aquifers
      • Impact of tidal oscillation on three-dimensional heterogeneous coastal aquifers
      • The identification of the controls of tidally driven dynamics
    12. Relating reactive solute transport to hierarchical and multiscale sedimentary architecture in a Lagrangian-based transport model: 1. Time-dependent effective retardation factor (pages 1586–1600)

      Mohamad Reza Soltanian, Robert W. Ritzi, Chao Cheng Huang and Zhenxue Dai

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016353

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      Key Points:

      • A Lagrangian-based transport model for the time-dependent retardation is derived
      • The model is based on a hierarchy of cross-transition probability structures
      • The model can explain the observed PCE plume behavior at the Borden site
    13. Relating reactive solute transport to hierarchical and multiscale sedimentary architecture in a Lagrangian-based transport model: 2. Particle displacement variance (pages 1601–1618)

      Mohamad Reza Soltanian, Robert W. Ritzi, Chao Cheng Huang and Zhenxue Dai

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016354

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      Key Points:

      • A Lagrangian-based transport model for reactive solute dispersion is derived
      • The model is based on a hierarcy of cross-transition probability structures
      • The model explains the observed PCE plume behavior at the Borden site
    14. Estimating freshwater flows from tidally affected hydrographic data (pages 1619–1634)

      D. E. Pagendam and D. B. Percival

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015706

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      Key Points:

      • RoHAKS gives improved estimates of freshwater flow
      • Detiding methods can exhibit periods of upstream flow
      • Detiding based on robust statistical methods shows improved performance
    15. Experimental study on effects of geologic heterogeneity in enhancing dissolution trapping of supercritical CO2 (pages 1635–1648)

      Elif Agartan, Luca Trevisan, Abdullah Cihan, Jens Birkholzer, Quanlin Zhou and Tissa H. Illangasekare

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015778

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      Key Points:

      • Diffusion can be the dominant mixing mechanism in low-permeability zones
      • Low-permeability zones can immobilize dissolved mass for stable trapping
      • In blocks heterogeneity, spreading depends on the permeability distribution
    16. Impact of errors in the downwelling irradiances on simulations of snow water equivalent, snow surface temperature, and the snow energy balance (pages 1649–1670)

      Karl E. Lapo, Laura M. Hinkelman, Mark S. Raleigh and Jessica D. Lundquist

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016259

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      Key Points:

      • Typical radiation errors can cause large SWE and snow temperature errors
      • Differences in model response reveal feedbacks within model processes
      • Warm and cold sites have different sensitivity and responses to errors
    17. Thermodynamics in the hydrologic response: Travel time formulation and application to Alpine catchments (pages 1671–1687)

      F. Comola, B. Schaefli, A. Rinaldo and M. Lehning

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016228

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      Key Points:

      • Integrated mathematical description of flow and temperature dynamics
      • Spatially explicit simulations of streamflow and stream temperature
      • Reliable prediction of seasonal hydro-thermal cycles in Alpine catchments
    18. Multiscale solute transport upscaling for a three-dimensional hierarchical porous medium (pages 1688–1709)

      Mingkan Zhang and Ye Zhang

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016202

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      Key Points:

      • Three-dimensional solute transport
      • Multiscale solute transport modeling
    19. Impact of interfacial tension on residual CO2 clusters in porous sandstone (pages 1710–1722)

      Fei Jiang and Takeshi Tsuji

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016070

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      Key Points:

      • A numerical method is developed to calculate residual-cluster characteristics
      • Interfacial tension significantly impacts characteristics of residual clusters
      • High interfacial tension improves the stability of residual trapping
    20. Hydrophobic organic contaminant transport property heterogeneity in the Borden Aquifer (pages 1723–1743)

      Richelle M. Allen-King, Indra Kalinovich, David F. Dominic, Guohui Wang, Reid Polmanteer and Dana Divine

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016161

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      Key Points:

      • VOC Kd and k correlated to facies define their heterogeneity
      • Only 20% of the aquifer volume accounts for 50% of aquifer sorption
      • Coarse-grained units have greater sorption capacity than fine-grained units
    21. Toward the camera rain gauge (pages 1744–1757)

      P. Allamano, A. Croci and F. Laio

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016298

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      Key Points:

      • Rainfall intensity can be measured using pictures of rainy scenes
      • An analytical method is developed to infer the rain rate from sequential images
      • The technique may be exported to pictures of rain acquired with smartphones
    22. Transient response of Salix cuttings to changing water level regimes (pages 1758–1774)

      L. Gorla, C. Signarbieux, P. Turberg, A. Buttler and P. Perona

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015543

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      Key Points:

      • Changing water level regime triggers physiologic dynamics on juvenile plants
      • After moderate regime changes plants better tolerated later stress conditions
      • Minimal flow policies onset strong root hydrotropic responses
    23. Multiple regression and inverse moments improve the characterization of the spatial scaling behavior of daily streamflows in the Southeast United States (pages 1775–1796)

      William H. Farmer, Thomas M. Over and Richard M. Vogel

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015924

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      Key Points:

      • Univariate regression misrepresents the scaling behavior of daily streamflow
      • Inverse moments represent the lower half of the distribution of streamflow
      • Increasing scale reduces the variability of streamflow in the study region
    24. Model averaging methods to merge operational statistical and dynamic seasonal streamflow forecasts in Australia (pages 1797–1812)

      Andrew Schepen and Q. J. Wang

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016163

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      Key Points:

      • Ensemble forecasts are merged with Bayesian and quantile model averaging
      • Merging statistical and dynamic forecasts improves skill
      • QMA preserves the shape of the contributing forecasts
    25. Toward understanding nonstationarity in climate and hydrology through tree ring proxy records (pages 1813–1830)

      Saman Razavi, Amin Elshorbagy, Howard Wheater and David Sauchyn

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015696

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      Key Points:

      • Significant nonstationarities exist in the mean and autocorrelation structure
      • Unlike the mean, autocorrelation changes consistently across space
      • A 30 year period is not representative of long-term hydrologic properties
    26. Enhanced nonlinearity interval mapping scheme for high-performance simulation-optimization of watershed-scale BMP placement (pages 1831–1845)

      Rui Zou, John Riverson, Yong Liu, Ryan Murphy and Youn Sim

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015772

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      Key Points:

      • Enhanced NIMS to solve large-scale watershed BMP simulation-optimization
      • Efficient interval response coefficient to overcome computational bottleneck
      • NIMS solve simulation-optimization problem with extremely high efficiency
    27. A hybrid pore-scale and continuum-scale model for solute diffusion, reaction, and biofilm development in porous media (pages 1846–1859)

      Youneng Tang, Albert J. Valocchi and Charles J. Werth

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016322

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      Key Points:

      • We present the first hybrid model for microbial-mediated reactive transport
      • The results based on the hybrid model are consistent with a pore-scale model
      • The hybrid model works well for large Damköhler numbers
  3. Technical Reports: Methods

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Technical Reports: Methods
    5. Comment
    6. Reply
    1. From analytical solutions of solute transport equations to multidimensional time-domain random walk (TDRW) algorithms (pages 1860–1871)

      Jacques Bodin

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015910

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      Key Points:

      • New multidimensional time-domain random walk (TDRW) algorithms are derived
      • The stochastic travel time of particles in 2-D and 3-D is calculated in one step
      • The approach may be applicable to a variety of mathematical transport models
  4. Comment

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Articles
    4. Technical Reports: Methods
    5. Comment
    6. Reply
  5. Reply

    1. Top of page
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    4. Technical Reports: Methods
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