Water Resources Research

Cover image for Water Resources Research

July 2015

Volume 51, Issue 7

Pages i–vi, 4861–5868

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Review Articles
    4. Research Articles
    5. Technical Reports: Data
    6. Technical Reports: Methods
    1. Issue Information (pages i–vi)

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.21101

  2. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Review Articles
    4. Research Articles
    5. Technical Reports: Data
    6. Technical Reports: Methods
    1. You have free access to this content
      Organic contaminant transport and fate in the subsurface: Evolution of knowledge and understanding (pages 4861–4902)

      Hedeff I. Essaid, Barbara A. Bekins and Isabelle M. Cozzarelli

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017121

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      Key Points:

      • Over 500 WRR articles describe studies of subsurface organic contamination
      • Nonaqueous phase liquid fate is determined by pore-scale and macroscale processes
      • Bioremediation of dissolved plumes is limited by aquifer chemistry and mixing
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      Catchment coevolution: A useful framework for improving predictions of hydrological change? (pages 4903–4922)

      Peter A. Troch, Tim Lahmers, Antonio Meira, Rajarshi Mukherjee, Jonas W. Pedersen, Tirthankar Roy and Rodrigo Valdés-Pineda

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017032

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      Key Points:

      • Catchments coevolve in function of climate, geology, and tectonics
      • This coevolution leads to spatial patterns of landscape features
      • These landscape features can inform models to predict hydrologic change
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      Global hydrology 2015: State, trends, and directions (pages 4923–4947)

      Marc F. P. Bierkens

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017173

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      Key Points:

      • Review of global hydrology over the period 1969–2015
      • Identification of recent trends
      • Vision on future trends and challenges
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      White water: Fifty years of snow research in WRR and the outlook for the future (pages 4948–4965)

      Matthew Sturm

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017242

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      Key Points:

      • Snow is a critical water resource
      • WRR has been the venue for many important papers in this area
      • Snow will be even more important in the future and WRR to continue publish key papers
    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Food security and sustainable resource management (pages 4966–4985)

      Dennis McLaughlin and Wolfgang Kinzelbach

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017053

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      Key Points:

      • Available natural resources are sufficient to meet 2050 global demand for food
      • Low-income populations remain vulnerable to limitations in local resources
      • Sustainable increases in food production will require major infrastructure and research investments
  3. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Review Articles
    4. Research Articles
    5. Technical Reports: Data
    6. Technical Reports: Methods
    1. You have free access to this content
      The emergence of topographic steady state in a perpetually dynamic self-organized critical landscape (pages 4986–5003)

      Liam Reinhardt and Michael A. Ellis

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016223

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      Key Points:

      • Evolving landscapes reveal topography that is both dynamic and steady state
      • Evolving topography is a self-organized critical process
      • SOC in evolving landscapes is probably related to the activity of landslides
    2. Comparison of two stochastic techniques for reliable urban runoff prediction by modeling systematic errors (pages 5004–5022)

      Dario Del Giudice, Roland Löwe, Henrik Madsen, Peter Steen Mikkelsen and Jörg Rieckermann

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016678

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      Key Points:

      • We describe systematic errors of drainage models with two statistical approaches
      • Both methods reliably assess the uncertainty of urban hydrologic simulations
      • One is optimal for long-term predictions, the other for real-time forecasts
    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      On the control of riverbed incision induced by run-of-river power plant (pages 5023–5040)

      Simone Bizzi, Quang Dinh, Dario Bernardi, Simona Denaro, Leonardo Schippa and Rodolfo Soncini-Sessa

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016237

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      Key Points:

      • Riverbed degradation included in MO optimization of reservoir operation
      • Surrogate modeling of a hydro-morphological model by response surface
      • Pareto-optimal solutions derived for hydropower revenue and riverbed incision
    4. Improved snow interception modeling using canopy parameters derived from airborne LiDAR data (pages 5041–5059)

      D. Moeser, M. Stähli and T. Jonas

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016724

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      Key Points:

      • Showed a 27% increase in r2 and 40% RMSE reduction compared to prior models
      • Canopy parameters that represent large-scale features explained most variations
      • Nine thousand interception measurements indicated a sigmoidal shaped interception efficiency
    5. Analytical sensitivity analysis of transient groundwater flow in a bounded model domain using the adjoint method (pages 5060–5080)

      Zhiming Lu and Velimir V. Vesselinov

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016819

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      Key Points:

      • Analytic approach to compute transient sensitivities using the adjoint method
      • Model parameters include distributed transmissivity and storativity
      • Parameter fields can be correlated or uncorrelated
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      Ecohydrological modeling in agroecosystems: Examples and challenges (pages 5081–5099)

      A. Porporato, X. Feng, S. Manzoni, Y. Mau, A. J. Parolari and G. Vico

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017289

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      Key Points:

      • Review opportunities to apply ecohydrology methods in agroecosystems
      • Parsimonious models address stochasticity and nonlinearity in ecohydrology
      • Sustainable soil and water use can be designed via optimal stochastic control
    7. Propagation and deposition of stony debris flows at channel confluences (pages 5100–5116)

      L. M. Stancanelli, S. Lanzoni and E. Foti

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017116

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      Key Points:

      • Stony debris flow dynamics in confluence setting
      • Slope angle and triggering scenario control, respectively, mobility and morphology
      • Main channel morphology at confluences
    8. Tamarix transpiration along a semiarid river has negligible impact on water resources (pages 5117–5127)

      Alyson K. McDonald, Bradford P. Wilcox, Georgianne W. Moore, Charles R. Hart, Zhuping Sheng and M. Keith Owens

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016866

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      Key Points:

      • Brush control is unlikely to yield water if transpiration is a small component of the water budget
      • The ratio of transpiration to streamflow will affect the impact of brush control on water yields
    9. Updating real-time flood forecasts via the dynamic system response curve method (pages 5128–5144)

      Wei Si, Weimin Bao and Hoshin V. Gupta

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017234

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      Key Points:

      • Presents a method for improving streamflow forecasts by correcting rainfall estimates
      • Testing shows improvement over direct real-time error-feedback correction of streamflow
      • The method can be applied without any modifications to the hydrological model
    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      An entropy-based measure of hydrologic complexity and its applications (pages 5145–5160)

      Aldrich Castillo, Fabio Castelli and Dara Entekhabi

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016035

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      Key Points:

      • Basin hydrologic response is a function of soil moisture distributional features
      • An information-based dimensionless index of hydrologic complexity is applied
      • The complexity index characterizes soil moisture distributional features
    11. The relationship between Monte Carlo estimators of heterogeneity and error for daily to monthly time steps in a small Minnesota precipitation gauge network (pages 5161–5176)

      Michael Wright, Celso Ferreira, Mark Houck and Jason Giovannettone

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015399

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      Key Points:

      • Two commonly used heterogeneity statistics based on linear moment ratios are validated
      • Linearity with respect to quantile error of estimation is shown for both statistics
      • A method for evaluating all regionalizations of a gauge data set is presented
    12. Integration of microseismic monitoring data into coupled flow and geomechanical models with ensemble Kalman filter (pages 5177–5197)

      Mohammadali Tarrahi, Behnam Jafarpour and Ahmad Ghassemi

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016264

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      Key Points:

      • Coupled flow and geomechanical model calibration with EnKF
      • Joint estimation of flow and geomechanical properties from microseismic data
      • Low-rank representation of microseismic data for appropriate EnKF updates
    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Uncertainty in global groundwater storage estimates in a Total Groundwater Stress framework (pages 5198–5216)

      Alexandra S. Richey, Brian F. Thomas, Min-Hui Lo, James S. Famiglietti, Sean Swenson and Matthew Rodell

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017351

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      Key Points:

      • Groundwater resilience is defined and quantified with remote sensing from GRACE
      • Timescales of aquifer depletion are assessed as a Total Groundwater Stress ratio
      • The volume of usable global groundwater storage is found to be largely unknown
    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Quantifying renewable groundwater stress with GRACE (pages 5217–5238)

      Alexandra S. Richey, Brian F. Thomas, Min-Hui Lo, John T. Reager, James S. Famiglietti, Katalyn Voss, Sean Swenson and Matthew Rodell

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017349

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      Key Points:

      • Renewable groundwater stress is quantified in the world's largest aquifers
      • Characteristic stress regimes are defined to determine the severity of stress
      • Overstressed aquifers are mainly in rangeland biomes with some croplands
    15. Evaluating the potential for quantitative monitoring of in situ chemical oxidation of aqueous-phase TCE using in-phase and quadrature electrical conductivity (pages 5239–5259)

      R. D. Hort, A. Revil, J. Munakata-Marr and D. Mao

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016868

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      Key Points:

      • 2-D conductivity tomograms can qualitatively track permanganate movement
      • Tikhonov regularization alone cannot produce accurate conductivity distributions
      • In situ chemical oxidation modeling may improve inversions, allowing quantitative use of tomograms
    16. Applicability of bed load transport models for mixed-size sediments in steep streams considering macro-roughness (pages 5260–5283)

      Johannes M. Schneider, Dieter Rickenmann, Jens M. Turowski, Kristin Bunte and James W. Kirchner

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016417

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      Key Points:

      • Bed load Qb at steep slopes S is typically overpredicted if macro-roughness RL is neglected
      • Critical- or boundary-shear-stress corrected for S or RL improve Qb prediction
      • The shapes of fitted Qb eqs. depend on whether critical- or boundary stress is corrected
    17. Vegetation persistence and carbon storage: Implications for environmental water management for Phragmites australis (pages 5284–5300)

      Kai Whitaker, Kerrylee Rogers, Neil Saintilan, Debashish Mazumder, Li Wen and R. J. Morrison

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016253

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      Key Points:

      • Identified relationships between biomass, soil carbon, and reedbed persistence
      • Environmental water may enhance biomass and soil carbon of reedbeds
      • Reedbed persistence may enhance carbon sequestration benefits
    18. Climate and agricultural land use change impacts on streamflow in the upper midwestern United States (pages 5301–5317)

      Satish C. Gupta, Andrew C. Kessler, Melinda K. Brown and Francis Zvomuya

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017323

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      Key Points:

      • Increased precipitation is the main driver of increased streamflow
      • Agricultural land use and land cover changes had minimal impacts on streamflow
      • Incorrect assumptions in previous studies minimized precipitation impacts
    19. Use of a forest sapwood area index to explain long-term variability in mean annual evapotranspiration and streamflow in moist eucalypt forests (pages 5318–5331)

      Richard G. Benyon, Patrick N. J. Lane, Dominik Jaskierniak, George Kuczera and Shane R. Haydon

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017321

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      Key Points:

      • Correlations between mean annual streamflow and forest sapwood area are examined
      • Annual streamflow can be predicted from forest inventory data and rainfall
      • Changes in sapwood area account for changes in annual streamflow
    20. Uncertainty in training image-based inversion of hydraulic head data constrained to ERT data: Workflow and case study (pages 5332–5352)

      Thomas Hermans, Frédéric Nguyen and Jef Caers

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016460

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      Key Points:

      • The workflow assesses posterior uncertainty in model and geological scenario
      • ERT data are used twice to validate scenarios and condition MPS simulations
      • The workflow can be adapted to many contexts and methods
    21. Bridging the gap between models and measurements of peat hydraulic conductivity (pages 5353–5364)

      Paul J. Morris, Andy J. Baird and Lisa R. Belyea

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017264

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      Key Points:

      • Depth is the strongest predictor of hydraulic conductivity in shallow peat
      • Peat decomposition is important to order of magnitude of hydraulic conductivity
      • Our data indicate alterations that should be made to peatland development models
    22. On the dynamics and kinematics of two-fluid-phase flow in porous media (pages 5365–5381)

      W. G. Gray, A. L. Dye, J. E. McClure, L. J. Pyrak-Nolte and C. T. Miller

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR016921

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      Key Points:

      • Kinematic principles are an essential element of multiphase porous media models
      • Time scale for equilibrium in multiphase flows depends on interface deformation
      • Microfluidic experiments and lattice Boltzmann analyses validate the theory
    23. Numerical rivers: A synthetic streamflow generator for water resources vulnerability assessments (pages 5382–5405)

      Edoardo Borgomeo, Christopher L. Farmer and Jim W. Hall

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016827

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      Key Points:

      • Nonparametric streamflow generation method based on simulated annealing
      • User-specified properties of the time series can be modified
      • Enables stress testing against potential climate-induced hydrological changes
    24. You have free access to this content
      Water security and the science agenda (pages 5406–5424)

      Howard S. Wheater and Patricia Gober

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR016892

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      Key Points:

      • Global challenges of water security are unprecedented
      • New trans-disciplinary water science is required for the Anthropocene
      • Large basin-scale observatories can address the science-policy interface and large-scale science needs
    25. Long-term observation of permeability in sedimentary rocks under high-temperature and stress conditions and its interpretation mediated by microstructural investigations (pages 5425–5449)

      Hideaki Yasuhara, Naoki Kinoshita, Hiroaki Ohfuji, Manabu Takahashi, Kazumasa Ito and Kiyoshi Kishida

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016427

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      Key Points:

      • A long-term evolution in rock permeability is measured
      • The increase in permeability in the intact samples is likely due to the formation of flow paths
      • The decrease in permeability in the fractured samples is attributed to the dissolution at the contacting asperities
    26. On the assessment of aridity with changes in atmospheric CO2 (pages 5450–5463)

      Michael L. Roderick, Peter Greve and Graham D. Farquhar

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017031

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      Key Points:

      • A recent interpretation of climate model output is for a “warmer is more arid” scenario
      • Geological records over several glacial cycles suggest that “warmer is less arid”
      • We use a new framework to reinterpret climate model output and conclude that “warmer is less arid”
    27. A simple and efficient unstructured finite volume scheme for solving the shallow water equations in overland flow applications (pages 5464–5486)

      L. Cea and E. Bladé

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016547

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      Key Points:

      • The DHD scheme gives accurate and stable results in rainfall-runoff computations
      • The DHD scheme is almost as simple to code as diffusive wave models
      • The DHD scheme avoids the numerical inconveniences of diffusive wave models
    28. Preliminary December–January inflow and streamflow reconstructions from tree rings for western Tasmania, southeastern Australia (pages 5487–5503)

      K. J. Allen, S. C. Nichols, R. Evans, E. R. Cook, S. Allie, G. Carson, F. Ling and P. J. Baker

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017062

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      Key Points:

      • Multicentennial December–January hydrological reconstructions western Tasmania
      • Twentieth century wetter than average, severe extended dry periods in past
      • Nontraditional tree ring chronologies key to successful reconstructions
    29. Prediction of solute transport in a heterogeneous aquifer utilizing hydraulic conductivity and specific storage tomograms (pages 5504–5520)

      S. Jiménez, R. Brauchler, R. Hu, L. Hu, S. Schmidt, T. Ptak and P. Bayer

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016402

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      Key Points:

      • Sequential hydraulic tomographical inversion
      • Combination of structural information and full signal inversion
      • Tracer tests used as independent validation
    30. You have free access to this content
      Suppressed convective rainfall by agricultural expansion in southeastern Burkina Faso (pages 5521–5530)

      Theophile Mande, Natalie C. Ceperley, Gabriel G. Katul, Scott W. Tyler, Hamma Yacouba and Marc B. Parlange

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017144

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      Key Points:

      • Convective rainfall (CR) reduced by agricultural expansion in Burkina Faso
      • Reductions in CR explained by reduced sensible heat (H) over agricultural sites
      • Reduced H reduced crossing between ABL height and lifting condensation level
    31. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A novel framework for discharge uncertainty quantification applied to 500 UK gauging stations (pages 5531–5546)

      G. Coxon, J. Freer, I. K. Westerberg, T. Wagener, R. Woods and P. J. Smith

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016532

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      Key Points:

      • A generalized framework for discharge uncertainty estimation is presented
      • Allows estimation of place-specific discharge uncertainties for many catchments
      • Local conditions dominate in determining discharge uncertainty magnitudes
    32. Impacts of evaporation on subsurface flow and salt accumulation in a tidally influenced beach (pages 5547–5565)

      Xiaolong Geng and Michel C. Boufadel

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR016886

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      Key Points:

      • We model subsurface flow and solute transport in a beach subject to evaporation
      • Evaporation increased pore water salt concentration from 25 to 50 g/L
      • Evaporation caused different a spatial salinity profile from no-evaporation case
    33. Spatial considerations of stream hydraulics in reach scale temperature modeling (pages 5566–5581)

      Noah M. Schmadel, Bethany T. Neilson and Justin E. Heavilin

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR016931

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      Key Points:

      • The contribution of the boundary condition persisted over several kilometers
      • Channel surface heat fluxes were most sensitive to spatially variable hydraulics
      • Temperature predictions converged at scales of spatial correlation
    34. Enhancement of plume dilution in two-dimensional and three-dimensional porous media by flow focusing in high-permeability inclusions (pages 5582–5602)

      Yu Ye, Gabriele Chiogna, Olaf A. Cirpka, Peter Grathwohl and Massimo Rolle

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR016962

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      Key Points:

      • Experimental theoretical and numerical study of flow focusing and dilution
      • Mixing enhancement analyzed in 2-D and 3-D heterogeneous flow-through systems
      • Mixing enhancement depends on system dimensionality, inclusions position and Dt
    35. You have free access to this content
      The morphology of streams restored for market and nonmarket purposes: Insights from a mixed natural-social science approach (pages 5603–5622)

      Martin W. Doyle, Jai Singh, Rebecca Lave and Morgan M. Robertson

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017030

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      Key Points:

      • Restored streams are different
      • Market streams are different
      • Stream restoration design is a social process
    36. Gas pressure gradients in unsaturated porous media and the assumption of infinite gas mobility (pages 5623–5639)

      Lili Hou, Brent E. Sleep and Tohren C. G. Kibbey

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017189

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      Key Points:

      • Gas pressure gradients can be significant in dynamically draining porous media
      • Vents do not necessarily equilibrate pore gas pressures with inlet gas
      • Gas pressure artifacts can mimic dynamic capillary effects
    37. Analysis of convergent flow tracer tests in a heterogeneous sandy box with connected gravel channels (pages 5640–5657)

      Antonio Molinari, D. Pedretti and C. Fallico

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016216

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      Key Points:

      • Connectivity is better measured by BTCs peaks
      • Capacity coefficient is physically linked to connectivity
      • Nonlocal parameters are linked to physical heterogeneity
    38. Run-of-river power plants in Alpine regions: Whither optimal capacity? (pages 5658–5676)

      G. Lazzaro and G. Botter

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016642

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      Key Points

      • We set a method to trade between profitability and hydrologic impact of RoR plants
      • Pareto-optimal and efficient capacities are affected by the flow regime
      • Streamflow variability is less impacted by large plants
    39. Improved reservoir sizing utilizing observed and reconstructed streamflows within a Bayesian combination framework (pages 5677–5697)

      Jason Patskoski and A. Sankarasubramanian

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016189

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      Key Points:

      • Reconstructed streamflow improves reservoir storage estimates
      • Split-sample validation shows utility of tree rings and SST in reservoir sizing
      • Uncertainty in storage reduces as skill and reconstructed data added increases
    40. Control of coupling mass balance error in a process-based numerical model of surface-subsurface flow interaction (pages 5698–5716)

      Marcello Fiorentini, Stefano Orlandini and Claudio Paniconi

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016816

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      Key Points:

      • Coupling mass balance error in a surface-subsurface flow model is investigated
      • Time step control based on a degree of coupling index is proposed and tested
      • The interpolation algorithm used to pass exchange variables is improved
    41. Morphodynamic response of a variable-width channel to changes in sediment supply (pages 5717–5734)

      Peter A. Nelson, Andrew K. Brew and Jacob A. Morgan

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016806

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      Key Points:

      • Width variation controls the location of and relief between riffles and pools
      • A sediment pulse evolved primarily through dispersion rather than translation
      • Under steady flow, sediment supply does not influence riffle-pool relief
    42. Under-canopy turbulence and root water uptake of a Tibetan meadow ecosystem modeled by Noah-MP (pages 5735–5755)

      Donghai Zheng, Rogier Van der Velde, Zhongbo Su, Jun Wen, Martijn J. Booij, Arjen Y. Hoekstra and Xin Wang

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017115

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      Key Points:

      • Under-canopy turbulence and root water uptake schemes implemented in Noah-MP are augmented
      • Impact of the augmentations on Noah-MP performance is evaluated for a Tibetan meadow site
      • Simulations of water and heat fluxes by Noah-MP are improved greatly with the augmentations
    43. Catchment-scale Richards equation-based modeling of evapotranspiration via boundary condition switching and root water uptake schemes (pages 5756–5771)

      Matteo Camporese, Edoardo Daly and Claudio Paniconi

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017139

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      Key Points:

      • Simple, parsimonious ET schemes for integrated hydrological models are assessed
      • Boundary condition switching is suitable only for shallow root depths
      • Oxygen stress and root water compensation influence riparian zone ET dynamics
    44. Footprint characteristics revised for field-scale soil moisture monitoring with cosmic-ray neutrons (pages 5772–5790)

      M. Köhli, M. Schrön, M. Zreda, U. Schmidt, P. Dietrich and S. Zacharias

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017169

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      Key Points:

      • Neutron transport modeling revised with a near-ground cosmic-ray spectrum
      • Footprint radius is 130–240 m depending on humidity, soil moisture, and vegetation
      • Detector is extraordinarily sensitive to the first few meters
    45. Source, transport, and evolution of saline groundwater in a shallow Holocene aquifer on the tidal deltaplain of southwest Bangladesh (pages 5791–5805)

      Scott C. Worland, George M. Hornberger and Steven L. Goodbred

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016262

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      Abstract

      • The saline groundwater is connate
      • The confining unit varies in thickness
      • The freshwater is supplied by isolated meteoric recharge
    46. Cost of water for peace and the environment in Israel: An integrated approach (pages 5806–5826)

      Frank A. Ward and Nir Becker

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016783

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      Key Points:

      • This paper presents a framework for discovering a water sharing plan
      • Findings show results from a constrained optimization analysis
      • Results identify a $US 1.46 billion price tag
    47. You have free access to this content
      Hydrocomplexity: Addressing water security and emergent environmental risks (pages 5827–5838)

      Praveen Kumar

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017342

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      Key Points:

      • Hydrocomplexity addresses water security & emergent environmental risks
      • Emergent risks arise from novel interactions & evolving interdependency
      • There is a need for a Blue Revolution to address water security
  4. Technical Reports: Data

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Review Articles
    4. Research Articles
    5. Technical Reports: Data
    6. Technical Reports: Methods
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Hydraulic fracturing water use variability in the United States and potential environmental implications (pages 5839–5845)

      Tanya J. Gallegos, Brian A. Varela, Seth S. Haines and Mark A. Engle

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017278

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      Key Points:

      • A U.S. map of water volumes used to hydraulically fracture oil and gas wells, 2011–2014
      • Hydraulic fracturing water volumes differ regionally across the U.S.
      • Discussion of variation in water use and potential environmental implications
  5. Technical Reports: Methods

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Review Articles
    4. Research Articles
    5. Technical Reports: Data
    6. Technical Reports: Methods
    1. Delineation of connectivity structures in 2-D heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields (pages 5846–5854)

      Alina R. Tyukhova, Wolfgang Kinzelbach and Matthias Willmann

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015283

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      Key Points:

      • Numerical algorithm to delineate connected channels without flow and transport simulation
      • Channels provide main flux and early solute arrival
    2. Numerical stability analysis of two-dimensional solute transport along a discrete fracture in a porous rock matrix (pages 5855–5868)

      Norihiro Watanabe and Olaf Kolditz

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017164

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      Key Points:

      • The von Neumann number ≥ 0.373 is required to avoid undershooting in the matrix
      • The Courant number has a lower bound in the fracture for low dispersivity
      • The FEM-FCT method can suppress oscillations in both the fracture and the matrix

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