Potassium-, Ammonium-, Hydrazinium-, Guanidinium-, Aminoguanidinium-, Diaminoguanidinium-, Triaminoguanidinium- and Melaminiumnitroformate – Synthesis, Characterization and Energetic Properties



Energetic salts containing the nitroformate (trinitromethanide) anion with several nitrogen-rich cations were investigated, including ammonium nitroformate (ANF), melaminium nitroformate (MNF), guanidinium nitroformate monohydrate (GNFH), aminoguanidinium nitroformate (AGNF), diaminoguanidinium nitroformate (DAGNF) as well as triaminoguanidinium nitroformate (TAGNF). All salts were characterized using vibrational spectroscopy (IR, Raman), mass spectrometry, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The thermal decomposition of the salts was monitored using differential scanning calorimetry. In addition, the impact, friction and electrostatic sensitivity data were determined. Theoretical calculations were carried out in order to predict performance data such as detonation velocities and detonation pressures. The crystal structures of ANF, MNF, GNFH, AGNF, DAGNF and TAGNF were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction. In addition, a second polymorph of MNF was determined crystallographically as well as the crystal structures of MNF with methanol and MNF with dimethylsulfoxide. Finally, new polymorphs of potassium nitroformate (KNF) and hydrazinium nitroformate (HNF) were characterized using single crystal X-ray diffraction.