Preparation of High Purity Sodium 5-Nitrotetrazolate (NaNT): An Essential Precursor to the Environmentally Acceptable Primary Explosive, DBX-1

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Abstract

Sodium 5-nitrotetrazolate dihydrate (NaNT) is a useful precursor compound for the synthesis of lead-free primary explosives; however, currently employed syntheses for the compound are tedious, dangerous, and plagued by impurities. Through comprehensive analysis, we elucidate the identity of the most detrimental impurities and further report an improved procedure for preparation of NaNT, which greatly improves the purity, while avoiding the handling of acid copper(II) nitrotetrazolate, a highly sensitive explosive intermediate. In the new procedure, 5-aminotetrazole is diazotized with sodium nitrite, cupric sulfate, and nitric acid. Copper is precipitated as its oxide and the aqueous solution evaporated. After soxhlet extraction with acetone, large crystals of NaNT are obtained. The prepared material is suitable for preparation of lead azide replacement DBX-1 [copper(I) 5-nitrotetrazolate] as evidenced by successful use in M55 stab detonators.

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